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11. Sinus Dysrhythmias. Fast & Easy ECGs, 2nd E – A Self-Paced Learning Program. Sinus Rhythms. Rhythms originating from the SA node are called sinus rhythms. I. Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR). During normal heart activity, SA node acts as the primary pacemaker

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Sinus dysrhythmias

11

Sinus Dysrhythmias

Fast & Easy ECGs, 2nd E – A Self-Paced Learning Program


Sinus rhythms
Sinus Rhythms

  • Rhythms originating from the SA node are called sinus rhythms

I


Normal sinus rhythm nsr
Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR)

  • During normal heart activity, SA node acts as the primary pacemaker

  • NSR has a heart rate of 60 to100 BPM (in the average adult)


Sinus bradycardia
Sinus Bradycardia

  • Has all the characteristics of NSR but the heart rate is < 60 BPM

Q

I


Causes of sinus bradycardia
Causes of Sinus Bradycardia

  • Often occurs naturally as body’s way to conserve energy during times of reduced demand for blood flow

  • Other causes include:

I


Effects of sinus bradycardia
Effects of Sinus Bradycardia

  • Often insignificant and the patient is asymptomatic

  • Hypotension can result if the heart rate slows to the point where cardiac output drops sufficiently

    • Patients are less tolerant of rates < 45 BPM

I


Treatment of sinus bradycardia
Treatment of Sinus Bradycardia

  • Asymptomatic patients require no treatment but should be monitored in case there is a progression of the bradycardia

  • Symptomatic patients may improve with the administration of atropine, transcutaneous pacing, or administration of an IV infusion of dopamine or epinephrine


Sinus tachycardia
Sinus Tachycardia

  • Has same characteristics as NSR but has a rate >100 BPM

Q

I


Causes of sinus tachycardia
Causes of Sinus Tachycardia

  • Often occurs with physical labor, exercise, pain, fear, excitement, anxiety, and where increased sympathetic stimulation occurs in response to the need for more oxygen and nutrients at the cellular level

  • Other causes include those shown to the right:

I


Effects of sinus tachycardia
Effects of Sinus Tachycardia

  • Often of no clinical significance

  • Can increase myocardial oxygen consumption

    • which can aggravate ischemia (bringing on chest pain), and infarction, particularly in those with cardiovascular disease

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Treatment of sinus tachycardia
Treatment of Sinus Tachycardia

  • Asymptomatic patients require no treatment

    • However, patient should be encouraged to abstain from triggers such as alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine

  • Treatment for symptomatic sinus tachycardia is directed at treating the cause

    • Continued monitoring is indicated with an underlying medical or traumatic condition

    • For patients experiencing myocardial ischemia, consideration may be given to additional treatments that will slow the heart rate or vasodilate the coronary arteries


Sinus dysrhythmia
Sinus Dysrhythmia

  • Same as NSR except there is a patterned irregularity

  • Described as a cycle of “slowing, then speeding up, then slowing again”


Sinus dysrhythmia1
Sinus Dysrhythmia

  • The beat-to-beat variation produced by irregular firing of the SA node usually corresponds with the respiratory cycle and changes in intrathoracic pressure

  • Heart rate increases during inspiration and decreases during expiration


Causes of sinus dysrhythmia
Causes of Sinus Dysrhythmia

  • Can occur naturally in athletes, children, and older adults

  • Other causes include:


Effects of sinus dysrhythmia
Effects of Sinus Dysrhythmia

  • Usually of no clinical significance and produces no symptoms

  • In some patients and conditions it may be associated with palpitations, dizziness, and syncope


Treatment of sinus dysrhythmia
Treatment of Sinus Dysrhythmia

  • Provided the patient is asymptomatic, usually no treatment is needed

  • If unrelated to respirations, consideration may be given to treating the underlying cause


Sinus arrest
Sinus Arrest

  • Occurs when the SA node transiently stops firing

  • Results in short periods of cardiac standstill until a lower-level pacemaker discharges or the SA node resumes its normal function

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Sinus arrest1
Sinus Arrest

  • Most prominent characteristic is a pause in ECG rhythm

  • Produces an irregularity

  • Rhythm typically resumes its normal appearance after pause unless an escape pacemaker resumes the rhythm


Causes of sinus arrest
Causes of Sinus Arrest

  • Results from marked depression in SA node automaticity

  • Causes include:

I


Effects of sinus arrest
Effects of Sinus Arrest

  • Becomes clinically significant with an extended pause or when there are frequent occurrences of the pause or arrest

    • Can lead to a drop in cardiac output and decreased blood pressure and tissue perfusion

  • There is also a danger that SA node activity will completely cease and an escape pacemaker may not take over pacing


Treatment of sinus arrest
Treatment of Sinus Arrest

  • Asymptomatic patients require no treatment

  • Symptomatic patients may be treated with administration of atropine or temporary or permanent ventricular pacing

    • Reasons to pace include the development of an AV junctional or ectopic ventricular pacemaker that is slow enough to result in such problems as syncope, CHF, angina, or frequent ventricular ectopic beats

  • As needed, drugs affecting SA node discharge or conduction, such as beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel blockers, and digoxin, should be discontinued


Sinoatrial exit block
Sinoatrial Exit Block

  • Occurs when the SA node fires but conduction to the atria is delayed or blocked


Causes of sinoatrial exit block
Causes of Sinoatrial Exit Block

  • Include the following:


Effects of sinoatrial exit block
Effects of Sinoatrial Exit Block

  • Is usually insignificant

  • Can be clinically significant when there is an extended pause or when there are frequent occurrences of the dropped P waves (and subsequent QRS complexes)

    • Can lead to decreased heart rate, a drop in cardiac output, and decreased blood pressure and tissue perfusion


Treatment of sinoatrial exit block
Treatment of Sinoatrial Exit Block

  • No treatment is indicated provided the patient is asymptomatic

  • If the patient is symptomatic, treatment includes administration of atropine or temporary or permanent ventricular pacing


Sick sinus syndrome
Sick Sinus Syndrome

  • Is a group of abnormal rhythms that occur with malfunction of the sinus node

    • Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome is one variant in which slow dysrhythmias and fast dysrhythmias alternate


Causes of sick sinus syndrome
Causes of Sick Sinus Syndrome

  • Is a moderately uncommon disorder

  • Causes include the following:


Effects of sick sinus syndrome
Effects of Sick Sinus Syndrome

  • Although many types are symptom free, patients may present with Stokes-Adams attacks, fainting, dizziness or lightheadedness, palpitations, chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, headache, and nausea


Treatment of sick sinus syndrome
Treatment of Sick Sinus Syndrome

  • Bradydysrhythmias are well controlled with pacemakers whereas tachydysrhythmias respond well to medications

    • However, because both bradydysrhythmias and tachydysrhythmias may be present, drugs to control the rapid heart rates may worsen bradydysrhythmia

    • For this reason, a pacemaker is implanted before drug therapy is begun for the tachydysrhythmia


Sinus rhythm as underlying rhythm
Sinus Rhythm as Underlying Rhythm

  • Sinus rhythm may be what is referred to as an underlying rhythm. What

  • that means is the sinus rhythm is seen, but then there is another dysrhythmia

  • or cardiac condition seen as well. For example, if there is a delay in

  • conduction through the AV node (referred to as first degree AV block, in

  • chapter 15) then we call it sinus rhythm with first degree AV block (Figure

  • 11-9A). Similarly, if there are early beats, we call it sinus rhythm with

  • early beats


Practice makes perfect
Practice Makes Perfect

  • Determine the type of dysrhythmia

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Practice makes perfect1
Practice Makes Perfect

  • Determine the type of dysrhythmia

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Practice makes perfect2
Practice Makes Perfect

  • Determine the type of dysrhythmia

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Practice makes perfect3
Practice Makes Perfect

  • Determine the type of dysrhythmia

I


Practice makes perfect4
Practice Makes Perfect

  • Determine the type of dysrhythmia

I


Practice makes perfect5
Practice Makes Perfect

  • Determine the type of dysrhythmia

I


Practice makes perfect6
Practice Makes Perfect

  • Determine the type of dysrhythmia

I


Practice makes perfect7
Practice Makes Perfect

  • Determine the type of dysrhythmia

I


Practice makes perfect8
Practice Makes Perfect

  • Determine the type of dysrhythmia

I


Summary
Summary

  • Rhythms originating from the SA node are called sinus rhythms.

  • Normal sinus rhythm has a heart rate of 60 to 100 BPM (in the average adult).


Summary1
Summary

  • Sinus bradycardia has all the characteristics of normal sinus rhythm but the heart rate is less than 60 BPM.

  • Sinus tachycardia has the same characteristics as normal sinus rhythm but has a rate of greater than 100 BPM.


Summary2
Summary

  • Sinus dysrhythmia is the same as sinus rhythm except there is the presence of a patterned irregularity. It can be described as a cycle of “slowing, then speeding up, then slowing again.”

  • With sinus arrest the ECG rhythm looks like normal sinus rhythm except there is a pause in the rhythm or an absence of the P, QRS, and T waveforms until a pacemaker site reinitiates the rhythm.


Summary3
Summary

  • With sinoatrial exit block, there is a pause in the rhythm with an absence of the P, QRS, and T waveforms. Then the P wave (and associated QRS complex) reoccurs at the next expected interval

  • Sick sinus syndromeis a group of abnormal rhythms that occur with malfunction of the sinus node

  • Sinus rhythms may be what are referred to as an underlying rhythm. This is where the sinus rhythm is seen but then another dysrhythmia or cardiac condition is seen as well