What’s the difference? • Direct Quotes– these involve taking information verbatim from the original • Indirect Quotes—these include paraphrasingand summarizing
Summarizing involves condensing a longer piece of writing into what you consider to be the main/central points. It will be shorter than the original. • Paraphrasing involves putting a source into your own words. It will be as long as the original and contain almost every point made in that original source.
Cite It? • ALL source material used, regardless of the size of the assignment, must be cited in order to avoid any charges of plagiarism. • You cite a source using a specific documentation style. Examples: APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.
APA • American Psychological Association • Two parts—in text citations and a References page • No one memorizes this stuff! • Find a good handbook or reference guide to use whenever you have to do research or write a paper
Paraphrasing • Definition: “Paraphrasing is the process of rewriting someone else's idea(s) in your own words.” • Paraphrasing requires you to reword the information you locate in your source material into your own language or a language understandable by the audience. • Length: “A paraphrase is usually around the same length as the original.” A paraphrase may include some of the same words as the original quote; however,try to use your own words or synonyms whenever you can.
Why Paraphrase Quotes and Cite Sources? (1) To show that you comprehend what you have read and yet, you still can give your source credit for the ideas, and (2) To keep your instructors from accusing you of plagiarism or intellectual theft (to establish our own academic credibility)
Paraphrasing (cont) • (Paraphrase) • Stoner and Wankelreport that many people work in settings where they must routinely suppress their emotions. Therefore, suppressing emotions may have a negative impact on employees’ problem-solving ability, motivation, enjoyment and workplace productivity (Stoner and Wankel, 1986). (Original) The climate in most groups and organizations does not encourage open expression of feelings. The necessity of hiding feelings, Organizational Development practitioners believe, has a negative effect not only on group member’s willingness and ability to solve problems constructively, but also on job satisfaction and performance.From:Stoner, J. A. F. & Wankel, C. (1986) Management. (3rd Edition), New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. (Note: Paraphrase is almost as long as the original.)
Paraphrase (cont.) • Note: Many instructors prefer that you paraphrase instead of use direct quotes. • Paraphrasing indicates your reading comprehensionand application of thinking skills. • They also want to see that you recognize when to give credit to the researcher or conceiver of the ideas you include in your speech or writing.
What is a summary? • A summary is the main idea or ideas of the work. (It’s also an indirect quote of content.) • A summary is condensed (more briefly stated) when compared to the original quote or a paraphrase.
Example of a Summary Helpful HINT ~ Source: unilearning
Why Summarize? • Avoid plagiarism by summarizing, paraphrasing and citing your sources.
Examples • Text: Novak (1998) differentiates between concept maps, which he sees as representing concepts and relationships between them as agreed upon by experts in the field, and cognitive maps, which he sees as representing the idiosyncratic cognitive structure of an individual student. Reference: • Novak, J. D. (1998). Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in school and corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.