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Comparative Anatomy Muscles. Note Set 8 Chapter 10. Muscles. Two muscle groups: Somatic muscles Operate head, trunk, limbs Locomotion and orientation Visceral muscles Operate visceral skeleton Digestion and respiratory movements. Cranial Nerves to Muscles.

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comparative anatomy muscles

Comparative AnatomyMuscles

Note Set 8

Chapter 10

muscles
Muscles

Two muscle groups:

  • Somatic muscles
    • Operate head, trunk, limbs
    • Locomotion and orientation
  • Visceral muscles
    • Operate visceral skeleton
    • Digestion and respiratory movements
cranial nerves to muscles
Cranial Nerves to Muscles

Figure 10.1: Facial nerves to muscles

Figure 10.2: Cranial nerves

two muscle types
Two Muscle Types
  • Somatic muscles
    • Skeletal muscle
    • Striated and voluntary
  • Visceral muscles
    • Smooth muscle
    • Non-striated and involuntary
    • Exception- branchiomerics (unsegmented)
skeletal muscles
Skeletal Muscles
  • Axial
    • Trunk and tail
  • Appendicular
    • Insert on girdles, fins, or limbs
  • Branchiomerics
    • Attached to visceral skeleton
axial
Axial
  • Shark
    • Epaxial and hypaxial muscles
    • Body wall muscles
  • Amphibians
    • Epaxials above transverse process
    • Hypaxials along body wall proper
  • Mammals
    • Epaxials subdivided
    • Hypaxials more complex

Figure 10.3: Trunk muscles of vertebrates.

hypaxial and epaxial muscles
Hypaxial and Epaxial Muscles

Figure 10.5: Specific epaxial muscles

Figure 10.4: Epaxial and hypaxial mucles

abdominal muscle groups in amniotes
Abdominal Muscle Groups in Amniotes
  • Epaxials
    • Transversospinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis
  • Hypaxials
    • Dorsomedials, laterals, ventrals
    • Laterals- external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominus
    • Ventral- rectus abdominus

Figure 10.6: Epaxial and hypaxial muscles

head region
Head Region

Figures 10.7: Myotomes in the head, neck, and thoracic regions of the embryo.

Figure 10.8- Axial muscle origin and innervation in vertebrate embryo.

head region1
Head Region
  • In branchial region, somites are broken down
  • Ventral slips of postbranchial somites become hypobranchial musculature
  • Hypobranchial muscles give rise to:
    • Sternohyoid
    • Sternothyroid
    • Omohyoid
    • Tongue muslces
      • Geniohyoid
      • Hyoglossus
      • Styloglossus
      • Genioglossus
      • Lingualis propria
appendicular muscles
Appendicular Muscles
  • Extrinsic
    • Origin on axial skeleton or fascia of trunk
    • Insert on girdles and limbs
  • Intrinsic
    • Origin on girdles or proximal skeletal elements of appendages
    • Insert on more distal skeletal elements
intrinsic muscles
Intrinsic Muscles

Figure 10.9: Intrinsic muscles of pectoral girdle and forelimbs of mammals and their homologues in reptiles.

branchiomerics
Branchiomerics
  • Arises from lateral plate mesoderm
  • Mandibular (1st) arch
  • Hyoid arch
  • Arches IV to VI
branchiomerics1
Branchiomerics
  • Mandibular (1st) arch
    • Intermandibularis- digastic
    • Adductor mandibulae- masseter, temporalis
  • Hyoid arch
    • Sphincter colli
    • Platysma and mimetics
      • integumentary muscles
  • Arches IV to VI
    • Trapezius, sternomastoid,

cleidomastoid

Figure 10.10: Branchiomeric muscles of gnathostomes.

branchiomeric muscles
Branchiomeric Muscles

Figure 10.11: Branchiomeric muscles and their innervations.

extrinsic eye muscles
Extrinsic Eye Muscles
  • Six eyeball muscles
    • 2 obliques
      • Superior and inferior on anterior portion
    • 4 rectus
      • Arise in posterior portion of orbit
      • Innervated by oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens

Figure 10.12: Innervation of eye muscle in embryo.

extrinsic eye muscles1
Extrinsic Eye Muscles

Figure 10.13: Dorsal view of extrinsic muscles of the left eyeball.

Figure 10.14: Lateral view of extrinsic muscles of eyeball in humans.

diaphragm
Diaphragm
  • Mammalian muscle structure
  • Covers lungs and heart in abdominal cavity

Figure 10.15: Human diaphragm.

dermal or integumentary muscles
Dermal or Integumentary Muscles
  • Fish & tailed amphibians- skin is firmly attached to musculature
  • Sphincter colli- first muscle to move skin
    • Subdivides down neck- platysma
  • Extrinsic and intrinsic muscle groups

Figure 10.16: Evolution of mammalian facial muscles. Shows sphincter colli (SC) spreading into platysma (P).

slide20
Extrinsic Integumentary Muscles
  • Costocutaneous muscles- allows rectilinear motion (reptiles--snakes)
  • Panniculus carnosus-sheet surrounds body
  • Cutaneous maximus- to shake skin (higher mammals)
  • Patagial muscles- bat wings
  • Auricularis- moves human ear
  • Caninus muscle- arises with aggression

Intrinsic Integumentary Muscles

  • Arrectores plumarum (birds) & arrectores pilorum (mammals)- errects hair and feathers
specialized muscles
Specialized Muscles
  • Electric organs
    • In fish
    • Modified hypaxial muscles

Figure 10.17: Electric eel.

literature cited
Literature Cited

Figure 10.1- http://www.city.ac.uk/optometry/Biolabs/cranial%20nerves/cranial_nerves_lab.htm

Figure 10.2- http://mywebpages.comcast.net/epollak/PSY255_pix/PSY255_pix.htm

Figure 10.3, 10.8, 10.9, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.16- Kent, George C. and Robert K. Carr. Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates. 9th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2001.

Figure 10.4 & 10.5- http://www.mut.ac.th/~vet/Anat-html/muscle/muscle.html

Figure 10.6, 10.10- http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/342notes6.htm

Figure 10.7- http://connection.lww.com/products/sadler/imagebank.asp

Figure 10.14- http://www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk/illingworth/motors/myosin.htm

Figure 10.15- http://whyfiles.org/204endurance_training/2.html

Figure 10.17- http://www.aqua.org/animals_electriceel.html