Professionalism. Chapter 1. After studying this unit. You will be able to: Discuss the development of the modern food service industry Name the key historical figures responsible for developing food service professionalism Explain the organization of the classic and modern kitchen brigades
In the 1500s, culinary guilds were developed to dictate and monopolize the preparation of certain food items.
Each guild governed the production of a set of specific types of food.
Monsieur Boulanger opened the first free-standing restaurant in Paris.
Boulanger’s contribution to the food service industry was to serve a variety of foods prepared on premises to customers whose primary interest was dining.
The social structure in France changed.
The aristocracy, guilds and their monopolies were abolished.
A budding restaurant industry emerged.
Chefs could cater to the growing middle class.
Antonin Carême (1783-1833)
“The Cook of Kings and the King of Cooks”
His stated goal was to achieve “lightness, grace, order and perspicuity in the preparation and presentation of food.”
Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)
“Emperor of the World’s Kitchens”
Defined French cuisine and dining during La Belle Époque
Simplified food preparation and dining
Classified the five families of sauces
Fernand Point (1897-1955)
Refined and modernized classical cuisine and laid the groundwork for nouvelle cuisine
Gaston Lenôtre (1920-)
Father of modern French pastry
Began a culinary school, L’École Lenôtre
Developed innovations in
Bavarians, charlottes and mousses
Mastered techniques of freezing baked products
Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899)
The first internationally renowned chef of an American restaurant, Delmonico’s in New York City
Launched the New American cuisine
Her goal was to serve fresh, seasonal and locally grown produce in simple preparations that preserved and emphasized the foods’ natural flavors.
American cuisine has always been influenced by cuisines from other countries. This is most evident in fusion cuisine, which began in the mid-1980s.In fusion cuisine, ingredients or preparation methods associated with one ethnic or regional cuisine are combined with those of another.
A system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks
Front of the House
Chef de cuisine
Chefs de partie
Légumier Garde Manger Tournant Commis
Dining room manager Maître D'hotel
Wine steward Sommelier
Headwaiter Chef de salle
Captains Chefs d’étage
Front waiters Chefs de rang
Back waiters Commis de rang
One of the most important tools the student chef must master is the knife.Good knife skills are critical to a chef’s success because the knife is the most commonly used tool in the kitchen.
To cook successfully you must first understand the ways in which heat is transferred: conduction, convection and radiation.You should also understand what the application of heat does to the proteins, sugars, starches, water and fats in food.