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Professionalism. Chapter 1. After studying this unit. You will be able to: Discuss the development of the modern food service industry Name the key historical figures responsible for developing food service professionalism Explain the organization of the classic and modern kitchen brigades

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after studying this unit
After studying this unit
  • You will be able to:
    • Discuss the development of the modern food service industry
    • Name the key historical figures responsible for developing food service professionalism
    • Explain the organization of the classic and modern kitchen brigades
    • Appreciate the role of the professional chef in modern food service operations
    • Understand the attributes a student chef needs to become a professional
culinary timeline past to the present
Culinary TimelinePast to the Present

In the 1500s, culinary guilds were developed to dictate and monopolize the preparation of certain food items.

Each guild governed the production of a set of specific types of food.

culinary guilds
The Guild







The Product

Main cuts of meat

Poultry, pies, tarts


Sauces and stews



Culinary Guilds
the first restaurant 1765
The First Restaurant1765

Monsieur Boulanger opened the first free-standing restaurant in Paris.

Boulanger’s contribution to the food service industry was to serve a variety of foods prepared on premises to customers whose primary interest was dining.

the french revolution 1789 1799
The French Revolution1789-1799

The social structure in France changed.

The aristocracy, guilds and their monopolies were abolished.

A budding restaurant industry emerged.

Chefs could cater to the growing middle class.

haute cuisine early 19 th century
Haute CuisineEarly 19th Century

Antonin Carême (1783-1833)

“The Cook of Kings and the King of Cooks”

His stated goal was to achieve “lightness, grace, order and perspicuity in the preparation and presentation of food.”

  • As a saucier he standardized the use of roux and devised a system to classify sauces
  • As a garde-manger he popularized cold cuisine
  • As a culinary professional he designed kitchen tools, equipment and uniforms
  • As an author he wrote and illustrated important texts on culinary arts
cuisine classique late 19 th century
Cuisine ClassiqueLate 19th Century

Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)

“Emperor of the World’s Kitchens”

Defined French cuisine and dining during La Belle Époque

Simplified food preparation and dining

Classified the five families of sauces

He wrote:

  • Le Livre des menus – a guide to planning meals
  • Ma cuisine – a survey of cuisine bourgeoisie (middle class cuisine)
  • Le Guide Culinaire– still in use today, a collection of classical cuisine recipes and garnishes
20 th century
20th Century

Fernand Point (1897-1955)

Refined and modernized classical cuisine and laid the groundwork for nouvelle cuisine

Gaston Lenôtre (1920-)

Father of modern French pastry

Began a culinary school, L’École Lenôtre

Developed innovations in

Bavarians, charlottes and mousses

Mastered techniques of freezing baked products

american culinary revolution
American Culinary Revolution

Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899)

The first internationally renowned chef of an American restaurant, Delmonico’s in New York City


  • The Epicurean, which contains 3500 recipes
american culinary revolution1
American Culinary Revolution

Julia Child


american culinary revolution2
American Culinary Revolution

Alice Waters

Launched the New American cuisine

Her goal was to serve fresh, seasonal and locally grown produce in simple preparations that preserved and emphasized the foods’ natural flavors.

fusion cuisine
Fusion Cuisine

American cuisine has always been influenced by cuisines from other countries. This is most evident in fusion cuisine, which began in the mid-1980s.In fusion cuisine, ingredients or preparation methods associated with one ethnic or regional cuisine are combined with those of another.

contemporary american modern american
Contemporary AmericanModern American

Thomas Keller

Daniel Boulud

Alain Ducase

  • Amuse bouche
  • Tasting menus
  • Canapes
  • Small Plates
avant garde
Avant Garde

Wylie Dufresne

Ferran Adria

  • Molecular Gastronomy
the brigade
The Brigade

A system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks


Front of the House



Chef de cuisine


Chefs de partie

Saucier Poissonier

Grillardin Friturier

Rôtisseur Potager

Légumier Garde Manger Tournant Commis


the professional chef what does it take
The Professional ChefWhat does it take?
  • Knowledge
    • Lifelong learning
  • Skill
    • Experience
  • Taste
  • Judgment
  • Dedication
  • Pride
front of the house
Front of the House


Dining room manager Maître D'hotel

Wine steward Sommelier

Headwaiter Chef de salle

Captains Chefs d’étage

Front waiters Chefs de rang

Back waiters Commis de rang

influences on modern food service operations
Influences on Modern Food Service Operations
  • New technologies
    • New Equipment
  • New foods
    • Genetic engineering
  • New concerns
    • Health issues
    • Sustainability
    • Cage free/free range, etc.
  • New consumers
    • Demographics
the modern kitchen
The Modern Kitchen
  • Executive chef
  • Sous-chef
  • Line cook
  • Pastry chef
  • Short-order cook
  • Institutional cook
  • Apprentice
  • The most important item in the tool kit
  • A good knife begins with a single piece of metal, stamped, cut, or best of all, forged and tempered
the blades
The Blades
  • Carbon steel
  • Stainless steel
  • High carbon stainless steel
  • Ceramic
the shapes
The Shapes
  • French or chef’s knife
  • Boning knife
  • Paring knife
  • Cleaver
  • Slicer
  • Butcher knife or scimitar
  • Oyster and clam knives
knife skills

Knife Skills

Chapter 5

after studying this unit1
After studying this unit
  • You will be able to:
    • Care for knives properly
    • Use knives properly
    • Cut foods into a variety of classic shapes

One of the most important tools the student chef must master is the knife.Good knife skills are critical to a chef’s success because the knife is the most commonly used tool in the kitchen.

using the knife safely
Using the Knife Safely
  • Use the correct knife
  • Always cut away from yourself
  • Place a damp towel underneath the cutting board to keep it from sliding as you cut
using a knife safely cont
Using a Knife Safely (cont.)
  • Keep knives sharp
  • When carrying a knife
  • A falling knife has no handle
  • Never leave a knife in a sink of water
caring for your knives
Caring for Your Knives
  • Sharpening
    • Whetstone
    • Steel
  • Washing and storing
    • Do not wash knives in commercial dishwashers
    • Always wash and dry knives by hand
controlling your knife
Controlling Your Knife
  • Use a grip that is most comfortable for you
  • Keep the sharp edge of the blade on the cutting board
  • Grip the item being cut with three fingertips and your thumb
  • Use the second joint of your index finger as a guide
  • Use smooth, even strokes to slice the food
  • Do Not use a dull knife
cutting with your knife
Cutting with Your Knife
  • Slicing
    • Chiffonade
      • Finely sliced or shredded leafy vegetables or herbs
    • Rondelles or rounds
      • Disk-shaped slices
    • Diagonals
      • Oval-shaped slices
    • Oblique-cut or roll-cut
      • Small pieces with two angle-cut sides
    • Lozenges
      • Diamond-shaped pieces, usually of firm vegetables
horizontal slicing
Horizontal Slicing
  • To horizontal slice is to butterfly or cut a pocket into meats, poultry or fish; it is also a method used to thinly slice soft vegetables
  • To chop is to cut an item into small pieces where uniformity of size and shape is neither necessary or feasible
cutting sticks
Cutting Sticks
  • Batonnet
    • 1/4 X 1/4 X 2 inches
  • Julienne
    • 1/8 X 1/8 X 2 inches
  • Fine julienne
    • 1/16 X 1/16 X 2 inches
dice cuts
Dice Cuts
  • Brunoise
    • 1/8 X 1/8 X 1/8
  • Small dice
    • 1/4 X 1/4 X 1/4
  • Medium dice
    • 1/2 X 1/2 X 1/2
  • Large dice
    • 3/4 X 3/4 X 3/4
  • Paysanne
    • 1/2 X 1/2 X 1/8
  • To mince is to cut items into very small pieces
  • The terms finely chopped and minced are often used interchangeably
round cuts
Round Cuts
  • Tourner
    • Football-shaped pieces with seven equal sides and blunt ends
  • Parisiennes
    • Spheres of fruits or vegetables cut with a small melon ball cutter
  • The mandoline is a nonmechanical cutting tool
after studying this unit2
After studying this unit
  • You will be able to:
    • Understand how heat is transferred to foods through conduction, convection and radiation
    • Understand how heat affects foods
    • Understand the basic principles of various cooking methods

To cook successfully you must first understand the ways in which heat is transferred: conduction, convection and radiation.You should also understand what the application of heat does to the proteins, sugars, starches, water and fats in food.

heat transfer
Heat Transfer
  • Conduction
  • Convection
    • Natural convection
    • Mechanical convection
  • Radiation
    • Infrared cooking
    • Microwave cooking
the effects of heat
The Effects of Heat
  • Proteins coagulate
  • Starches gelatinize
  • Sugars caramelize
  • Water evaporates
  • Fat melts
cooking methods
Cooking Methods
  • Dry-heat cooking methods
    • Air
    • Fat
  • Moist-heat cooking methods
    • Water
    • Steam
  • Combination cooking methods
    • Employ both dry- and moist-heat methods
dry heat cooking methods
Dry-Heat Cooking Methods
  • Broiling
  • Grilling
  • Roasting and baking
  • Sautéing
    • Stir-frying
  • Pan-frying
  • Deep-frying
moist heat cooking methods
Moist-Heat Cooking Methods
  • Poaching
    • Submersion poaching
    • Shallow Poaching
  • Boiling
  • Steaming
combination cooking methods
Combination Cooking Methods
  • First step: brown the main ingredient using dry heat
  • Second step: complete cooking by simmering the food in liquid
    • Braising
      • Small amount of liquid
    • Stewing
      • Enough liquid to cover the food
saute method
Saute Method
  • Select/season proteins
  • Heat pan
  • Add oil
  • Add protein, sear first side
  • Turn protein, sear second side
  • Finish in oven if necessary
saute method cot d
Saute Method (cot’d)
  • Remove meat; let rest
  • Adjust fat level in pan
  • Add aromats, saute
  • Deglaze
  • Add stock, demi, jus lie
  • Add herbs
  • Finish with cream?
  • Monte au beurre