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Mental Disorders. Edvard Munch “The Scream”. History of Psychology. Understanding Mental Disorders.

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mental disorders

Mental Disorders

Edvard Munch

“The Scream”

understanding mental disorders
Understanding Mental Disorders
  • “Sometimes we find ourselves behaving irrationally, having trouble concentrating on the matter at hand, or experiencing feelings that do not seem appropriate... But these remain occasional and we are able to cope with them... But the lives of some people are dominated for long years by disordered thoughts, disturbed feelings, inappropriate behaviour, or some mix thereof... Problems become so severe that these individuals cannot cope with life and withdraw from routines or people closest to them, in turn they may look to professionals for assistance...”
  • Psychology: the science of Behaviour. The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders, p. 547, 2010.
what causes such problems
What causes such problems?
  • Recent studies have identified complex interactions between an individuals genotype, brain chemistry, and childhood environment in the etiology (that is, the causation) of psychology disorders.
  • IE. A child who is constantly criticized by an overbearing, demanding parent may learn to be a) passive and non-responding or ...?
what is abnormal
What is Abnormal?
  • The term abnormal literally refers to any departure from the norm.
  • Are your friends abnormal if they make sure everything is turned off before they leave several times? Insist their pets understand them?
  • Term abnormal is subjective
  • Understand maladaptive – psychological disorders that cause distress or discomfort and interfere with people’s ability to lead satisfying, productive lives.
dsm iv tr
  • Diagnostic and Statistical

Manual of Mental Disorders,

Fourth Edition, Text Revision

  • Manual for classifying

psychological disorders that

assesses an individual based

on five different axes.

I – clinical disorders (mental, learning disorders and substance use)

II – personality and intellectual disorders

and 3 more ...


Roughly 11 percent of Canadians suffer from a psychological disorder or substance abuse problem.

  • (Health Canada, 2002).
disorders usually diagnosed at childhood axis i
Disorders Usually Diagnosed at Childhood (Axis I)
  • ADHD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity)
  • Autistic Disorder(abnormal development of social interaction, limited interests or activity)

Tend to be very intelligent.

anxiety somatoform and dissociative psychological disorders
Anxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative Psychological Disorders
  • Often referred to as neuroses, anxiety, somatoform, and dissociative psychological disorders are strategies of perception and behaviour that have gotten out of hand.
  • Lack of defense mechanisms in the brain that lead to pathological increases in anxiety.
  • Generally unhappy, however, UNLIKE, people with psychoses, they do not suffer from delusions or severely disordered thought processes.
types of anxiety disorders axis i
Types of Anxiety Disorders (Axis I)
  • Panic Disorder
  • Anticipatory anxiety
  • OCD

For most people, anxiety is a typical reaction to circumstances that are perceived to be dangerous , for example, walking along glass above the ground on a mountain.. Which isn’t considered abnormal. However, when anxiety interferes with carrying out day-to-day activities, it is considered a type of psychological disorder.

types of anxiety disorders cont d
Types of Anxiety Disorders Cont’d.
  • Phobic Disorder – unrealistic, excessive fear of a specific class of stimuli that interferes with normal activities. The object of the anxiety is readily identifiable: It could be a snake, insect, closed spaces, etc.
  • Some phobias include.........
anxiety disorders cont d
Anxiety Disorders Cont’d.
  • Acrophobia
  • Agoraphobia
  • Monophobia
  • Nyctophobia
  • Ochlopobia
  • Pathophobia
  • Taphophobia
  • Triskaidekaphobia
  • Heights
  • Open spaces
  • Being alone
  • Darkness
  • Crowds
  • Disease
  • Being buried alive
  • Turning thirteen
somatoform disorders
Somatoform Disorders
  • Soma meaning body
  • Somatization Disorder (often hypochondriasis)

Manifesting physical symptoms for which there is no apparent biological cause, rare in men and affecting approx 1% of females

  • Conversion Disorder (from Brain to Body) - some sort of anxiety or an idea in your head affects the body through paralysis or numbness. An unresolved psychological conflict is converted into a physical symptom.

i.e. Band of Brothers – Private Albert Blithe goes blind after the stress of seeing others killed


Vincent Van Gogh

Portrait of Dr. Gachet

Suffered from Bi-Polar Disorder

substance related disorders axis i
Substance-Related Disorders (Axis I)
  • Psychological disorders that are characterized by addiction to drugs or alcohol or by abuse of drugs or alcohol.
  • (ie. Lead to accidents, fetal alcohol syndrome, cerebral hemorrhaging)
schizophrenic disorders axis i
Schizophrenic Disorders (Axis I)
  • Serious psychological disorder characterized by thought disturbances, hallucinations, anxiety, emotional withdrawal, and delusions.
  • Onset is late teens to early 30’s.
  • Affects 1% of Canadians.
  • Literally means ‘split mind’ often misunderstood as split personality.

schizophrenia continued
Schizophrenia Continued
  • Often affected by delusions – which are beliefs contrary to fact.
  • Delusions of grandeur – false belief one is famous, powerful, or important
  • Delusions of persecution – false belief others are plotting against one

schizophrenia continued1
Schizophrenia Continued
  • Positive Symptoms and Negative Symptoms
  • Positive (outward-ish)– include thought disorder, hallucinations, and delusions.
  • Negative (inward-ish)– include absence of normal behaviour: flattened affect (emotion), poverty of speech, lack of initiative and persistence, and social withdrawal.
schizophrenia continued2
Schizophrenia Continued

There are 5 types most commonly discussed.

  • Paranoid (John Nash) – suffers from delusions of grandeur/persecution.
  • Disorganized – disturbances of thought and silly affect.
  • Catatonic (Katateinein in Greek meaning ‘to stretch or draw tight’) – motor disturbances – extreme excitement and stupor for long periods.
  • Undifferentiated
  • Residual
mood disorders axis i
Mood Disorders (Axis I)
  • Characterized by shifts in mood that affect normal perception, thought, and behaviour.
  • Characterized by deep, foreboding depression, or combination of depression and euphoria.
  • Bi-Polar I (a balance between manic ups and depressive downs)
  • Bi-Polar II (a manic ups are less frequent and less “up” and deeper depressive downs)
  • Major Depressive Disorder
personality disorders axis ii
Personality Disorders (Axis II)
  • DSM-IV-TR classifies abnormalities in behaviour that impair social or occupational functioning as personality disorders.
  • There are several types, but ONE, that has most impact on society is anti-social personality disorder.
  • This disorder is most disturbing because they feel no need to change
anti social personality disorder
Anti-Social Personality Disorder
  • Characterized by failure to conform to common standards of decency, repeated lying and stealing, failure to sustain long-lasting and loving relationships, low tolerance of boredom, and complete lack of guilt.
anti social personality behaviour continued
Anti-Social Personality Behaviour Continued
  • Kock (1889) coined people with this disorder a psychopath, also known as a sociopath.
  • IE. Paul Bernardo – convicted of brutal rape and murder of two teenage girls. He is considered to be a classic example of anti-social personality disorder.
treatment of psychological disorders
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
  • Trephining – procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living person (to release the demons, etc).
  • Philippe Pinel (France 1756) – pioneered treatment with respect and care
  • Old Tx – included ice tubs, made to bleed, shocked, lobotomy.
  • New Tx – included human therapies, programs implemented.
tx of disorders
Tx of Disorders
  • Humanistic Approach – Carl Rodgers, in group with positive reinforcement has been successful, along with free association.
  • Psychodynamic – (Freud) – Id, Ego, Superego more understood in private discussing thoughts, dreams and fantasies.
  • Systematic Desensitization – snakes, pennies, etc.
  • Modelling (Bandura 1971) – by demonstrating a behaviour can teach behaviour i.e. He eliminated fear of snakes in 92% of people who participated.
biological tx
Biological Tx
  • Drugs – common ones used are Prozac, Valium, Risperadal, Xanax