C. Summer of 1861 =both armies marched off with flags flying and drums beating, each expecting to win and to win quickly (in time they would realized no quick victory was in site)
+ Fighting would take place in 3 main areas, the southeast, the southwest, and at sea.
Seize Richmond, VATake the capital and the government, the war may end earlier
Take control of the Mississippi RiverKeep supplies down, cut the CSA in half
Fight a defensive warhoped North would tire of warhoped the North would get rid of Lincoln
Counted on European supplies and recognize South as an independent countryuse commerce, in exchange for their cotton
KEY BATTLES IN THE WEST Union Strategy Control river systems and split the Confederacy in half and isolate the 3 sections. Union Leaders:General Ulysses S. Grant Union Army:Army of the West Confederate Strategy Fight a defensive war and drive Union out of South Confederate Leader:Several different generals Confederate Army:Army of Tennessee USA General Ulysses S. Grant
3. Battle of Bull Run = on July 21, 1861, untrained troops from both sides met here in Virginia.Battle of Manassas – the South named battles after nearest town, the North named battles after the nearest body of water
Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas), July, 1861 Lincoln sent 30,000 inexperienced soldiers to fight at Bull Run.
a. How did the citizens come prepared to the battle? Why were they disappointed?
Followed the army from DC, festive, many brought picnic baskets of food and drinkDisappointed that the Southerners did not turn and run
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, the Commandant from VMI with his recently trained cadetsJackson held his ground “like a stone wall” and stopped the CSA retreat
c. What may have happened if the Southern troops pursued the fleeing Northern troops?
The might have been able to capture the USA capital, causing havoc amongst the North
Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas), July, 1861 • Northern troops were pushed back to D.C. • South won this battle but “lost the war”. • WHY? Failed to capture Washington, D.C. • Would never be so close to Washington, D.C.
Appointed commander of the Union Army (Army of the Potomac) after the loss at Bull Runsuperb organizer, transformed inexperienced recruits into trained soldiers
Delayed leading troops into battleLincoln was losing patience, forced McClellan to fightalways worried about the numbers (did not want to be outnumbered, wanted guaranteed victories)
March 1862, moved out of DC towards RichmondCSA Lee launched counterattacks, USA McClellan abandoned attacks laterCSA Lee sent CSA “Stonewall” Jackson to march on DC, keeping Union reserves in DC
Union Blockade = with the possession of the majority of the naval ships, the Union enforced a blockade on the South (not letting goods in or out of the South, attempting to starve and financially break the South). Blockade Runners were used by the South to counter the problem the blockade presented. The runners were small fast boats that would slip through the blockades, bringing in the necessary supplies.
Trade to Southern ports dropped by more than 90%CSA tried to break the blockade with ironclads
The CSA took the abandoned Union warship, the Merrimac (run aground) and added it to their fleet (renamed the Virginia)CSA covered the wood with 4 inch thick metal plates Promptly destroyed 2 Union boats and ran 3 others agroundUnion ships could not penetrate the steel
The Union countered with their own ironclad, the MonitorBoth boats were not seriously damaged and left in a drawSouth considered this a victory due to not losingThe CSA Virginia was later sunk by the CSA, did not want the Union to take it over after the fall of Norfolk
Now navies were to be made of metalUnion built an additional 50 ironclads South never had another serious naval threat during the war
E. Lee on the Offensive = Lee, the Southern Commander, in September 1862, advanced his troops intoMaryland. Lee felt a Confederate victory on Northern soil would be a great blow to the North’s morale.Unfortunately for Lee, Union General McClellan found out his plans when a careless Confederate general had left Lee’s plans behind at an abandoned Confederate campsite.
Thought a victory on Northern soil would be a blow to the Northern morale