Pressure to Expand Chapter 5 Becoming a World Power: U.S.
Causes & Effects of Imperialism • Imperialism- Stronger nation’s interest in dominating weaker nations- • Economically, Politically, Culturally, & Militarily
European Imperialism “THE SUN NEVER SETS ON THE BRITISH EMPIRE”
Protectorates • To protect the foreign investments and imperialist countries, European countries began making territories protectorates. • In a protectorate, the imperial power protects local rulers against rebellions and invasions as long as the ruler accepts European’s advice on how to govern.
American Imperialism still exists today • If there ever was in the history of humanity an enemy who was truly universal, an enemy whose acts and moves trouble the entire world, threaten the entire world, attack the entire world in any way or another, that real and really universal enemy is precisely Yankee imperialism. ~Fidel Castro
Factors for Expansion • ECONOMY • Industry created increased need for natural resources- rubber & petroleum • These resources came from undeveloped countries • Needed new markets to sell manufactured goods
ECONOMY • Too many goods • Too much food- Surplus • Led to Domination over poor agricultural countries • Created agreements over land with Latin Countries & then exploited the Natives as cheap labor
Factors for Expansion • NATIONALISM- Devotion to one’s nation jingoism – Aggressive nationalism • Competition with other European Nations for Empire created an interest in expansion • Superiority- U.S. Felt that their ideals and goals were superior to other nations
Expansion • If U.S. economy wants to stay strong, the nation needs new overseas markets to keep the economy strong, or U.S. could become a victim of Imperialism.
Social Darwinism • Politicians such as Theodore Roosevelt thought that Imperialism would strengthen the spirit of the U.S. • Social Darwinists believed that Imperialism was part of survival of the fittest • IT WAS DESTINY OF U.S.
Anglo-Saxonism • Manifest Destiny – Historian John Fiske believes that English-speaking nations have superior character and ideas and are destined to expand overseas. • Josiah Strong was a minister who liked the idea of Anglo-Saxonism to spread Christianity as well.
Military Factors • Technology produced Military that was more powerful than weaker nations • Militaristic Countries needed bases for refueling and supplies
Alfred Mahan • Admiral of the U.S. Navy – encouraged the U.S. military to build a global presence to compete with other powerful nations. • Many battle ships were built as a result of Mahan, including the USS Maine • Encouraged the establishment of more naval bases in the Caribbean and the construction of the Panama Canal. 1890 wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History – large navy is necessary to compete with other Imperial Countries
Religious Values • Piety/Duty: There was a impulse to carry Western ideals to Christian lands around the globe.
William Seward, Secretary of State • Purchase Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million (2 cents per acre) • Many thought it was silly to buy frozen worthless land, but proved to be full of timber, minerals, and oil.
Annexation • To join new territories or nations to existing nations.
U.S. annexation of Hawaii • Many U.S. business located in Hawaii producing sugar cane, but had to pay a tariff to sell in the U.S. • Business leaders wanted to annex Hawaii to avoid tariff. • Pearl Harborwas built in Hawaii in 1887 • Queen Liliuokalanni was overthrown, Sanford Dole headed new government (business owner) President Cleveland did not want to annex Hawaii as a state unless the people voted to approve statehood. Dole was ordered to restore power to the Queen, but refused. • Hawaii wasn’t formally a state until 1959, but never voted for the approval.
Foreign Policies • MONROE DOCTRINE: December 2, 1823 • Warned European Powers NOT to interfere with Western Hemisphere’s Affairs • Warned that the U.S. would not tolerate Colonization • Would say the U.S. refuses participation in disturbing Latin American nations • Broadened to Include U.S. Imperialism in late 1800s
This lithograph criticizes American foreign policy in 1898. In the cartoon, Uncle Sam is riding a bicycle with wheels labeled “western hemisphere” and “eastern hemisphere.” He has abandoned his horse, on whose saddle appears “Monroe Doctrine,” because the horse is too slow.
Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American war. • U.S. gained Guam, Puerto Rico, and paid $20 million for the Philippines. Spain freed Cuba.
Puerto Rico • Why Puerto Rico? • Presence in the Caribbean • To protect a future Canal that the U.S. wanted to join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. • Who ruled Puerto Rico after the war? • Military • Then U.S. passed the Foraker Act that set up a civil government. • U.S. appointed Governor and Puerto Rican citizens elected house members. • They were granted U.S. citizenship in 1917.
Cuba • U.S. helped Cuban farms, schools, medicine, and eliminated yellow fever after the war. • Platt Amendment: • 1. Cuba could not enter any treaties with other countries that may try to control its territory. • 2. U.S. had the right to intervene in Cuba • 3. Cuba could not go into debt. • 4. U.S. could buy or lease land for naval station. • Protectorate: U.S. partially controlled Cuba’s political affairs.
Philippines • Filipinos were not happy with the Treaty of Paris. First they were under Spanish rule, and now American rule. • They revolted, led by Emilio Aguinaldo ; 3 year war – Philippine-American War- resulted in 4,000 American deaths and 20,000 Filipino deaths. (War cost $400 million and U.S. paid $20 million to purchase the islands.) • U.S. set up a similar government for the Philippines as what existed for Cuba, and eventually earned independence in 1946.
China’s Influence • Philippines were gateway to Asia for the U.S. • U.S. feared that China would be split into colonies and U.S. would be shut out. • John Hay, (Secretary of State who referred to the Spanish-American War as the “Splendid Little War”) issued the Open Door Notes. • Letters to other imperialists nations stating that they should share trading rights in China with the U.S.
Boxer Rebellion • China was free, but had lots of Europeans in large cities. • Secret societies pledged to remove foreign “devils” from China.(Including missionaries and Chinese converts to Christianity.) • They were trained in martial arts • They rebelled and fought European troops • Thousands died fighting. • U.S. worried again about European control in China and losing equal trade.
Open Door Policy • Beliefs about American Foreign Policy • 1. U.S. Economy growth depended on exports • 2. U.S. had a right to intervene in Foreign countries to keep those markets open. • 3. U.S. feared closing a market or country to American products or ideas threatened U.S. survival.
Imperialists vs. Anti-Imperialists • McKinley was an imperialist; U.S. had gained an empire during his presidency (Spanish-American War; U.S. gained Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines.) • Cleveland, Carnegie, and Jane Addams were against U.S. ruling over people without their consent.
Section 4, America as a World Power • “In foreign affairs, the principle from which we never deviated was to have the Nation behave toward other nations precisely as a strong, honorable, and upright man behaves in dealing with his fellow-men.” • “It is wicked for the Nation to fail in either justice, courtesy, or consideration when dealing with any other power, big or little.” • -Theodore Roosevelt, “the peacemaker”
Russia declares war on Japan, 1904 Both Imperialists and competing for control of Korea. Japan surprise attack on Russia and succeeded on land as well.
Russia vs. Japan, continued… • Japan ran out of money, but didn’t want Russia to know, so approached President Roosevelt to negotiate a peace agreement. • Japan Demands: Sakhalin Island and money • TR’s compromise: Japan takes interest in Manchuria and Korea and no money. • TR: Nobel Peace Prize in 1906
Panama Canal • Roosevelt wanted a canal across Central America to join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to reduce travel for trade and military purposes. • U.S. and Britain agreed to share the rights to build a canal in 1850, but in 1901 U.S. gained exclusive rights to build the canal.
Proposed Canal Routes • Cross Nicaragua (more lakes, less land to cross) • Cross Panama (shorter, but more mountains and swamps.) • In the late 1800’s a French Company tried to build Canal in Panama, but gave up due to rough terrain, yellow fever, and expense. • U.S. bought French Company’s route for $40 million.
Panama, Colombian territory • 1903: Columbia would not give U.S. permission to build for fear of U.S. Imperialism, so U.S., including TR encouraged Panama to rebel and gain independence from Colombia. • The U.S. sent warships to intervene if necessary, but Colombia backed down. • 15 days later, the U.S. signed a treaty with Panama to build the canal. • $10 million plus annual rent of $250,000 for the Canal Zone, which was a U.S. Territory until 1999.
Constructing the Panama Canal, the world’s greatest engineering feat. • Obstacles: • Disease (yellow fever and malaria) • Soft volcanic soil • Swamp, brush land • Workers quit and returned home • Solutions: • Improved worker’s housing, drain swamps, spray for mosquitoes, and build schools, to keep workers healthy and happy • Labor: • Italy, Spain, British West Indies, U.S. • Costs: • $380 million • U.S. paid Colombia $25 million in 1921 for lost territory, but Latin relations were damaged.
Panama Canal Locks • Atlantic and Pacific ocean are not the same level, so a lock system was necessary • 1,000 feet long, 110 feet wide, and 41 feet deep • *See the graphics of the Lock system • Took 10 years to build (1904-1914) • 700,000 ships have used lock system by 1999 • Panama has full control of the Canal since 2000. • NY to CA = 13,000 miles; Panama Canal shortens trip to 5,200 miles. • Some ships today can’t fit through lock system. • Is the Panama Canal obsolete?
Roosevelt Corollary • Latin Countries were indebted to European Countries and TR was worried if they defaulted on their loans, Europe would have a reason to be involved in Latin America. • Monroe Doctrine (Europe stay out of Latin America) • Roosevelt added a Corollary that said: • European disorder in Latin America may “force the U.S. to exercise an international police power.” (U.S. would use force to protect its Latin America interests.) • Roosevelt based his policy on an African proverb: “Speak softly and carry a big stick.”
Wilson’s Missionary Diplomacy • U.S. had a moral responsibility to deny recognition to a government that was oppressive, hostile, or undemocratic. • Prior to this: U.S. recognized any government that controlled a nation, but now Western Hemisphere governments must establish democracies.
Mexican Revolution • Porfirio Diaz was a dictator who ruled Mexico for decades but encouraged American investments. • He was overthrown and the government was taken over by General Huerta. • Wilson refused to recognize Huerta’s government, calling Huerta a “butcher.” • U.S. sailors were arrested by Mexico, and Wilson used this as his excuse to invade; close to war • Huerta regime eventually collapsed and Wilson finally recognized the new leader, Carranza and the Mexico Government.
Pancho Villa • Pancho Villa did not like Carranza and he was upset that Wilson recognized Carranza’s Mexico and killed American engineers at a Mexico mine. • Villa raided New Mexico and killed 17 more Americans • John Pershing was sent to Mexico for Villa dead or alive. Carranza wanted U.S. out, but refused. • Pershing was finally ordered back home to go to World War I and never found Villa.
U.S. Foreign Policy • 1. Protect trade (exports) to ensure growth of economy. • 2. U.S. needed a strong military to protect interests abroad to ensure trade. • 3. U.S. exercised international police power to ensure dominance over Latin America