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Phage head. Tail sheath. Tail fiber. DNA. 100 nm. Bacterial cell. EXPERIMENT. Empty protein shell. Radioactivity (phage protein) in liquid. Radioactive protein. Phage. Bacterial cell. DNA. Batch 1: radioactive sulfur ( 35 S). Phage DNA. Centrifuge.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Phage head

Tail sheath

Tail fiber

DNA

100 nm

Bacterial

cell

slide2

EXPERIMENT

Empty protein shell

Radioactivity (phage protein) in liquid

Radioactive protein

Phage

Bacterial cell

DNA

Batch 1: radioactive sulfur (35S)

Phage DNA

Centrifuge

Pellet (bacterial cells and contents)

Radioactive DNA

Batch 2: radioactive phosphorus (32P)

Centrifuge

Radioactivity (phage DNA) in pellet

Pellet

slide3

Nitrogenous bases

Sugar–phosphate backbone 5 end

Thymine (T)

Adenine (A)

Cytosine (C)

DNA nucleotide

Phosphate

Sugar (deoxyribose) 3 end

Guanine (G)

slide5

5 end

Hydrogen bond

3 end

1 nm

3.4 nm

3 end

0.34 nm

5 end

(c) Space-filling model

(a) Key features of DNA structure

(b) Partial chemical structure

slide6

Purine + purine: too wide

Pyrimidine + pyrimidine: too narrow

Purine + pyrimidine: width consistent with X-ray data

slide7

Adenine (A)

Thymine (T)

Cytosine (C)

Guanine (G)

slide8

A

T

A

T

A

T

A

T

C

G

C

G

C

G

C

G

A

T

A

T

A

A

T

T

T

A

T

A

T

T

A

A

C

C

G

C

G

C

G

G

(c) “Daughter” DNA molecules, each consisting of one parental strand and one new strand

(b) Separation of strands

(a) Parent molecule

slide9

Origin of replication

Parental (template) strand

Daughter (new) strand

Replication fork

Double-

stranded

DNA molecule

Replication bubble

0.5 µm

Two daughter DNA molecules

(a) Origins of replication in E. coli

Origin of replication

Double-stranded DNA molecule

Parental (template) strand

Daughter (new) strand

0.25 µm

Replication fork

Bubble

Two daughter DNA molecules

(b) Origins of replication in eukaryotes

slide10

New strand 5 end

Template strand 3 end

5 end

3 end

Sugar

T

A

A

T

Base

Phosphate

C

G

C

G

G

C

G

C

DNA polymerase

3 end

A

A

T

T

3 end

Pyrophosphate

C

C

Nucleoside triphosphate

5 end

5 end

slide11

Nucleosome

(10 nm in diameter)

DNA double helix (2 nm in diameter)

H1

Histone tail

Histones

DNA, the double helix

Histones

Nucleosomes, or “beads on a string” (10-nm fiber)

slide12

Chromatid

(700 nm)

30-nm fiber

Loops

Scaffold

300-nm fiber

Replicated chromosome (1,400 nm)

30-nm fiber

Looped domains (300-nm fiber)

Metaphase chromosome