U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Introduction Environmental Considerations in Planning. Environmental Considerations. H&H Considerations. Economic Analysis. Planning Orientation. Consensus Building. Planning Process. Plan Formulation. COURSE OBJECTIVE.
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U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Introduction Environmental Considerations in Planning Environmental Considerations H&H Considerations Economic Analysis Planning Orientation Consensus Building Planning Process Plan Formulation
COURSE OBJECTIVE To present the authorities, procedures, policies and methods of environmental analysis and planning as they relate to the Corp’s Civil Works Mission.
Planners’ “Core” Curriculum • Seven Planner Orientation courses/workshops: • PCC1 Civil Works Orientation (086/404) • PCC2 Planning Principles and Procedures (077/405) • PCC3 Environmental Considerations (408) • PCC4 Economic Analysis (270/410) • PCC5 Hydrologic & Hydraulic Considerations (057/409) • PCC6 Plan Formulation Workshop (406) • PCC7 Public Involvement & Teaming (091/407) Adopted from the 2001 Civil Works Planning Capability Task Force Report 9 Jan 2001
Module Objective To present the civil works context in which Environmental Planning takes place
The Corps’ Role in Civil Works • Federal Interest • Origins of the Corps Civil Works • Scope of Corps Missions • Evolution of Ecosystem Restoration • Environmental Operating Principles and Doctrine • Planning Centers of Expertise • Civil Works Process, Budgets Etc.
Federal Interest • Originates from the Constitution. • Federal government may participate in water and related land conservation, development and management. • Dictates why we are involved at the federal level.* • Congress has the power to tax and spend for the general welfare * It is not our intent to take over local responsibilities.
Civil Works Missions • Navigation • Flood and Storm Damage Reduction • Hydropower • Ecosystem Restoration
Origins of the Corps Civil Works Program • Navigation. • General Survey Act of 1824. • Authorized the surveys of road and canal routes and set the stage for navigation improvements. • Rivers and Harbor Act of 1899. • First legislation with an environmental impact.
USS INTREPID NY Harbor Oct 2007 DEEP DRAFT NAVIGATION
Inland Navigation Robert C. Byrd L & D Ohio River Huntington District
Origins of the Corps Civil Works Program • Hydropower • Colorado River Compact (1922) • Addressed allocation of water in the western states and the harnessing of the region’s rivers to produce hydropower. • Corps projects represent 25% (100B kw/hr/yr)of the nation’s hydropower capacity . Summersville, WV
Origins of the Corps Civil Works Program • Flood and Storm Damage Reduction • Act of 1936 – “Watershed legislation” • Recognized flood damage reduction as a “proper activity of the Federal government” • Participation limited to where the benefits exceed the costs • First time use of “BCR” • Set economic policy!
Origins of Corps Civil Works Program • 1965-Water Resources Planning Act (WRPA) > Principles & Stds by the Water Resources Council • 1973 P&S promoted two co-equal objectives • National Economic Development ( NED) • Environmental Quality (EQ) • 1983- P&S modified as Principles & Guidelines with NED as primary consistent with protecting the environment • 2000-ER 1105-2-100 added the national ecosystem restoration (NER) objective. • 2007- Section 2031 Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) directs significant changes
Other Contributing Legislation • Swamp Land Acts of 1850s • Rivers and Harbor Act 1899 • FWCA-equal consideration for wildlife 1934-58 • NEPA 1969 • R&H Act of 1970 Sections 122 & 216 • Marine Protection, Research & Sanctuaries Act 1972 • Coastal Zone Management Act 1972 • Water Pollution Control Act 1972 • ESA-conserve endangered species. 1973 • P&S and P&G 1973-1983 • Clean Air Act 1977-90 • Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act of 1990 • WRDA’s 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1996, 1999, 2000 & 2007 • XOs 11990, 11991 (the original 3x3x3 plan)
What is Ecosystem Restoration ? • A return of a natural area or ecosystem to a close approximation of its condition prior to disturbance, or to a less degraded, more natural condition by restoring significant ecosystem functions, structures, and dynamic processes. • RAISES a Big QUESTION OF what is and how we address a SHIFTING BASELINE? • The Unnatural History of the Sea by Callum Roberts
Historic Flow Current Flow The Plan Flow “The 800-lb Gorilla” America’s Everglades are in Serious Peril
Water / Sewer Treatment Mitigation Pollution Abatement It is NOT !!!
Changes in Civil Works Planning • Termination of the Board of Rivers & Harbors 1992 • Environmental Op Principles EC 1105-2-404 2003 • Summary Report EC 1105-2-405 2005 • Civil Works Review Board EC 1105-2-406 2005 • Collaborative Planning EC 1105-2-409 2005 • Model Certification EC 1105-2-412 Jan 2009 • Watershed Planning EC 1105-2-411 Jan 2010 • Peer Review (ATR & IEPR) EC 1165-2-209 Jan 2010 • Sea Level Change (EC 1165-2-212 Sept 2011) • COE Risk-informed Planning (anticipated) • General Walsh’s 3x3x3 Plan 2012
Environmental Operating Principles On March 26, 2002 LTG Flowers issued the USACE Environmental Operating Principles that will encompass all USACE activities. //www.usace.army.mil/Environment/Pages/eop.aspx
Environmental Operating Principles There are Seven Environmental Operation Principles • Strive to achieve Environmental Sustainability... • Recognize the interdependence of life and the physical environment… • Seek balance and synergy among human development and natural systems… http://www.usace.army.mil/Environment/Pages/eop.aspx
Environmental Operating Principles • …accept corporate responsibility and accountability under the law… • Seek ways and means to assess and mitigate cumulative impacts… • Build and share an integrated knowledge base… • Respect the views of others...
Planning Centers of Expertise David A. Weekly LRH (304) 399-5635 Eric W. Thaut SPD (415) 503-6852 Jodi Ctreswell MVD (309) 794-5448 Bernard E. Moseby SAM (251) 694-3884 Clarke I. Hemphill POA (907)753-5602 Brad Hudgens SWD (469) 487-7033 Lawrence J. Cocchieri NAD (718) 765-7071 Sub-Planning Center of Expertise For Small Boat Harbors https://kme.usace.army.mil/CoPs/CivilWorksPlanning-Policy/pcx/default.aspx WRDA 2007 Section 2033 FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PLANNING CENTER OF EXPERTISE
Great Lakes and Ohio River Division Cost Engineering DX Northwestern Division Hydropower PCX North Atlantic Division Southwestern Division South Pacific Division South Atlantic Division Small Boat Harbors PCX Mississippi Valley Division Pacific Ocean Division Where are they? South West Division FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PLANNING CENTER OF EXPERTISE
What is their mission? The Centersenhance the Corps of Engineers’ planning capability and strengthen planner core competencies,by assisting district Project Delivery Teams through: • Technical services • Peer Review • Model certification • Training • Research & Development • Lessons Learned • Policy Development Support • Process Improvement
How do I engage the ECO-PCX? • First and foremost, through joint development of a Review Plan (RP) • Keep RP up to date: Maintain communication with the PCX(s) • Lead PCX will coordinate with other PCXs and the Cost Engineering Directory of Expertise (NWW) as appropriate • Lead/Manager will be assigned as primary point of contact • Visit PCX web/sharepoint sites for latest information
What is Planning? An iterative process that delivers a product by way of a number Administrative Milestones
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Conduct Reconnaissance Study Certify Reconnaissance Phase Initial Problem Identification Congressional Study Resolution/Authorization Initial Study Funding Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Negotiate PMP and FCSA Execute FCSA & Request Feasibility Funds Conduct Feasibility Study Complete Final Report for Coord. & Submission Step 10 Step 11 Step 12 Step 13 Step 14 Division Engineer's Notice Washington Level Policy Review Chief of Engineers Report Administration Review Project Authorization Step 15 Step 16 Step 17 Execute PED Agreement Draft PPA Review/Approval Conduct PED Step 18 Step 19 Step 21 Step 20 Project Construction Congress Appropriates Construction Funds Execute PPA OMRR&R TheCivil Works Project Delivery Process In this course, our focus is Steps 4 and 8
Phases of CW Project Development(Idealized) • Reconnaissance Planning (1 yr) • Feasibility Planning (2-4 years) • (Authorization) • Preconstruction Engineering & Design – PED (2-3 years) (Planning has a role if there are changes) • Construction (3-5 yrs) • Real Estate Acquisition (part of construction) • Operations and Maintenance (continuous)
KEY CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES AUTHORIZATION SENATE Committee on Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Transportation and Infrastructure and Public Safety HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Water Resource Development Authorization Committees establish LegalAuthority to Act! Authority may be for one or more years Authority may recommend funding levels (Not appropriation at this point) Authority to construct is not normally included
KEY CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES APPROPRIATION SENATE Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development Appropriation Committees provide Budget Authority Grant the Executive Branch authority to spend (obligate) money Provide All Funds Provide Partial Funds Provide No Funds
40 Districts / 8 MSC Needs Loaded OMB-ASA GUIDANCE ( FEB-MAR ) All Offices Develop Program Requirements ( Feb - May ) Budget Reviewed & Presented to SecArmy (Jun - Aug ) Funding Alloc. To Field Offices ( Oct - Dec ) BudgetCycle Budget Submitted to OMB ( Sep ) Cong. Hearings ( Mar - Apr ) OMB Passback ( Nov ) President Signs Approp. Bill ( Sep - Oct ) President’s Budget to Congress ( Feb ) Appropriations Bills ( Jul - Sep )
PROGRAM STRUCTURE Business Line • Navigation Coastal harbors & Inland Waterways • Flood Damage Reduction Riverine Floods; Coastal Storms • Environment Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Stewardship Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program • Regulatory Program • Other Business Lines Hydropower, Recreation, Water Supply, Flood Control and Coastal Emergencies , Support For Others
LCA FY 09/12 Construction Budget Ecosystem Priority Projects Lower Columbia River Restoration Columbia River Fish Mitigation Upper Miss. R. Side Channel Restoration Missouri River Fish & Wildlife Mitigation Lower Cape May Chicago SSC Chesapeake Bay Oysters Poplar Island Hamilton Wetlands NAPA River Marsh SFERP: Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Environmental Listed in 2012 Budget
Purposes of Reconnaissance Study Admin Steps Step 5&6 1. Define water resources problems and identify potential solutions 2. Decide whether there is a Federal interest in continuing into feasibility studies 3. Identify a local sponsor 4. Most of the effort is to prepare a Project Management Plan Peer Review Plan Feasibility Cost Share Plan 5. Your role: an initial review and evaluation of available information
Feasibility Study Phase Admin Steps 7, 8 & 9 • Step 7 Budget Process/FCSA • Steps 8 & 9 : The 6 step Process occurs here • Prepare a NEPA Document • Feasibility Report serves as a • Decision Documentto convince the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and an • Authorization Documentwhen submitted to Congress for project authorization
Rules & Regulations Guiding the Environmental Planning ProcessWhat we will talk about this week! Federal Laws Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Coastal Zone Management Act Endangered Species Act Farmlands Protection Policy Act Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Magnuson-Stevens Act Marine Mammal Protection Act National Historic Preservation Act National Environmental Policy Act Water Resources Planning Act Wild and Scenic Rivers Act Marine Protection Research & Sanctuaries Act Executive Orders Environmental Justice 12898 Invasive Species 13112 Wetlands Protection 11998 State Level The State Implementation Plans State 404 Program HOs # 9 & 21
News Planner’s Library Legislative Links Planner’s Study Aids Centers of Expertise WATCH FOR GREATER USE OF WEBCASTS Peer Review Corps Contacts Training and Career Related Links Planning Ahead Planning CoP Website: http://www.usace.army.mil/CECW/PlanningCOP/Pages/ArticleTemplate.aspx
Summary • The Corps has been in the civil works business for over 200 years. • Current trends point to a “greener Corps of Engineers.” • Corps planning doctrine is an evolving entity! • Environmental Restoration receives a substantial portion of the annual budget with a significant national footprint.
Remember, We are all in this together. QUESTIONS? “The Earth belongs to each generation during its course – no generation can contract debts greater than may be paid during the course of its own existence.” - Thomas Jefferson
Size of Agency People: Civilian Employees: Approximately 25,000 (FTE) Military: Approximately 200 Contractor community: Unlimited Contractor Offices Divisions: 8 Districts: 38 Planning Center’s of Expertise: 8 ResearchLabs: 7 (ERDC), (CERL), (ETL), (CERC), (CRREL), (FESA), (WRSC or IWR?) Hundreds of Area, Project, Resident Engineer Offices throughout the U.S. Funding: Approximately $5 billion annually-Does not include Support for Others