Research Style Guide. Prepared by: Michele Farquharson Teacher-librarian Vancouver School Board Thanks to Vancouver Teacher-librarians: Karen Cordiner, Valerie Dare, Val Hamilton, Peggy Lasser, Pat Parungao, and Colleen Tsoukalas. Preamble.
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Vancouver School Board
Thanks to Vancouver Teacher-librarians: Karen Cordiner, Valerie Dare, Val Hamilton, Peggy Lasser, Pat Parungao, and Colleen Tsoukalas
This is not to suggest that all research or projects should be completed with computers. Indeed, we must consider student learning styles when designing units of study. Students who are kinesthetic learners may need the process of physically writing, to assist with their learning. Many reading strategies incorporate the use of drawing, for example; split images; listen, draw and draft; and mind mapping.
These are the steps that can be followed in completing a research project. Although intended to be followed in this order, the steps, particularly “Work with the Information” and “Focus”, can be interchanged. Some learning styles require students to “Work with the Information” (read, view, listen) in order to “Focus”.
With the ease with which students can copy and paste to documents, it is crucial that we teach them how to avoid plagiarism.
Cybersmart school offers lessons from K – 8 on technology topics such as: Safety, Research and Manners. Manners includes discussion of plagiarism and Fair use along with student activity pages.
For older grades Purdue is one site that give suggestions and practises for avoiding plagiarism.
The best way to avoid plagiarism is teaching students how to take good notes and how to paraphrase. An internet search will lead you to many good exercises to teach this skill.
Students must also learn how to cite their sources. Citation Machine andNoodleToolsare bibliography makers that are easy to use.
Search tools to broaden or refine
An outline reflects logical thinking and clear classification. An outline can be:
- A logical, general description
- A schematic summary (a drawing or flow chart)
- An organizational pattern
- A visual and conceptual design of your writing
Brainstorm: List all ideas to be includes in their paper.
Organize: Group related ideas together.
Order: Arrange material in subsections from general to specific or from abstract to concrete.
Label: Create main and subheadings
“The basic format for an outline uses an alternating series of numbers and letters, indented accordingly, to indicate levels of importance.
Here is an example of an outline on a paper about the development of Japanese theatre:
“The thesis is stated in the first section, which is the introduction.
The body follows the introduction, and breaks down the points the author wishes to make.
Note that some section have subdivisions, others do not, depending on the demands of the paper.
In this outline, II, III, & IV all have similar structure, but this will not necessarily be true for all papers. Some may only have three major sections, others more than the five given here.
Your conclusion should restate your thesis, and never introduce new material.”
I. Thesis: Japanese theatre rose from a popular to elite and then returned to a popular art form.
II. Early theatrical forms
C. Primitive Noh
D. Authors and Audience
III. Noh theatre
a. women b. demons c. old men
2. Structure of Stage
1. Buddhist influence 2. The supernatural
D. Kyogen interludes
A. Authors B. Props”
A good key visual for elementary is from Houghton Mifflin. It illustrates theneed to tie the topic and conclusion together.
Detailed information on types of outlines can be found at this Wikipedia link (Grade 8 +):
Online Catalogue Help from Prince of Wales Secondary Prince of Wales Library
As part of the Webcat catalogue, students need to be taught how to use the online databases as each database serves a particular need.
Worldbook online - Username: vsbstudent
All other databases: username: 39XX
Webfeet: login: library
Educational internet sites are also directly linked from the catalogue.
Not all websites are valid. (See Internet Hoaxes – Male pregnancy, Tree Octopus…)
Evaluate websites using QUICK: The Quality Information Checklist at: Quick
PW web evaluation
Other strategies for evaluating Web sites.
Author: ___________ Title:_____________
After notes have been collected, students will compose opening sentences for each heading. An opening sentence is a general sentence that tells what the rest of the paragraph is going to be about This is a difficult task for primary students but should be introduced in these grades. By grade 4 the IRP lists:
C2 - write a variety of clear informational writing for a range of purposes and audiences, featuring
– clearly developed ideas by using clear, focused, useful, and interesting details and explanations
The report will be evaluated based on the content and original ideas as well as the mechanics of writing. Many teachers use C.O.P.S. when marking written work. This includes:
C = Complex sentences
O = Opening sentences are included
P = Punctuation
S = Spelling
Include page 21 from previous handout.
5 paragraph essay(Good explanation of how to write a 5 paragraph essay.)
Conclusions are often the most difficult part of an essay to write, and many writers feel that they have nothing left to say after having written the paper. Some writers find it easier to write the conclusion at the beginning of the writing process. A writer needs to keep in mind that the conclusion is often what a reader remembers best. The conclusion should be the best part of the paper
Two ways for students to communicate their research paper with others are an oral presentation or a powerpoint.
Objective: Students will be able to organize notes in a way that will formulate an outline.
Materials: Several books, encyclopedias, articles about Mars for each table group, large strips of paper, masking tape, different coloured felt pens for each table.
Procedure: Assign the following duties to a member of each table group – fact finder, fact writer, taper, note puter-upper, duplicate taker-downer, resource exchanger.
Review what a note is. Model all the steps that will be completed in the table group. Elaborate on the role of the duplicate taker-downer, stressing scanning. Teacher will give 2 minute warning before time and any table groups with duplicate notes up, have points deducted. The winning table will have the most facts up (all one colour).
Teacher goes through notes and groups similar ideas together. Have students generate a heading for the types of notes listed.
This outline is recorded and used for research on planets. This procedure can be used for many “generic” topics. (Countries, animals, explorers…)
We hope you will add your own slides or email suggestions/ websites to either Pat or Michele so that we keep a master copy and revise it at a later date.
Thank you for all your expertise.