only write down those notes that are in red n.
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Only write down those notes that are in RED - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Rocks. Only write down those notes that are in RED. A rock is a hard material made of one or more minerals. Or anything that when you pick it up and throw it at someone it produces the reaction: "Owww! Why did you hit me in the head with a rock?" The dictionary is no use here:

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

A rock is a hard material made of one or more minerals

Or anything that when you pick it up and throw it at someone it produces the reaction: "Owww! Why did you hit me in the head with a rock?"

The dictionary is no use here:

Rockn: a large mass of stone; a concreted mass of stony material; consolidated mineral matter

I love this one: something like a rock in firmness

By the way, a stone is " a piece of rock"! A rock can be made of only one mineral entirely (monomineralic) or a mixture of many minerals (polymineralic)

where are rocks found
Where are rocks found?
  • Rocks are found in Earth’s mantle and crust
  • This is because the inner core and outer core are too hot. The iron and nickel in these layers cannot solidify into rocks
  • Rocks from different distances
3 groups of rocks
3 groups of rocks
  • A rock is a group of minerals joined together in some way
    • Igneous – formed by the cooling & solidification of molten rock (magma)
    • Sedimentary – formed by the compaction & cementation of layers of sediment (rock fragments, organic remains, chemical deposits)
    • Metamorphic – formed when existing rocks are CHANGED by intense heat & pressure but DO NOT MELT
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The ROCK CYCLE shows how each type of rock forms & how each rock can change into a different type of rock
  • Rocks gradually and continually change from one type to another
igneous rocks

Igneous Rocks

ESRT page 6

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Igneous rocks form from the cooling or SOLIDIFICATION of magma (melted rock)

The RECRYSTALLIZATION of minerals is evident in Igneous Rocks

slide12

LIQUID HOT MAGMA

  • Magma is a mixture of liquid rock, crystals, and gas
  • It is characterized by a wide range of chemical compositions, with high temperature, and  properties of a liquid
  • Magmas are less dense than surrounding rocks, and will therefore move upward
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If magma makes it to the surface it will erupt and later crystallize to form an extrusive or volcanic rock
  • If it crystallizes before it reaches the surface it will form an igneous rock at depth called a plutonic or intrusive igneous rock
  • Because cooling of the magma takes place at a different rate, the crystals that form and their texture exhibit different properties
intrusive igneous rocks
intrusive igneous rocks
  • Form by the cooling of magma UNDERGROUND
    • “IN” –trusive / “IN” the ground

Also known as PLUTONIC

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Underground cooling is SLOWER
    • Rock crystals are LARGE & have a coarse texture
slide16

gabbro

pegmatite

granite

extrusive igneous rocks
extrusive igneous rocks
  • Forms from the cooling of LAVA (magma that has reached earth’s surface)
slide21
Cools QUICKLY (exposed to colder air)
    • Rock crystals are SMALL and rocks have a fine/glassy texture
rate of cooling activity
Rate of Cooling Activity
  • When I say “Go” try to find other students in the class who have the same color that you have
  • When I say “Stop”, stop exactly where you are and do not move until I say “GO” again
  • What happened as I gave you a longer amount of time to find each other?
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Pumice is an Extrusive Igneous Rock that is VESICULAR (has gas pockets). Because pumice formed so quickly, the rock formed around the pockets of gas, creating “holes” in the rock. This allows the rock to float in water because of its lower density

key idea

Key idea:

The texture of the igneous rock is determined by the size, shape, and arrangement of the mineral crystals

types of magma
FELSIC MAGMA

Light colored

Thick (high viscosity)

Contains high amounts of silica

Granite

MAFIC MAGMA

Dark colored

Thin (low viscosity)

Contains high amount of magnesium & iron

Basalt

types of magma
the bells whistles for identifying an igneous rock
the “bells & whistles” for identifying an IGNEOUS rock

Igneous rocks have obvious CRYSTALS

If you see minerals, it’s probably igneous!

igneous definitions
Igneous Definitions
  • Pluton: Intrusion of magma into Earth’s crust, creating igneous rock formations such as dikes, sills, laccoliths, volcanic necks and batholiths
  • Dike: Sheet of igneous rock that cuts across rock layers vertically
  • Sills: Sheet of igneous rock forced between rock layers parallel to the rock layers it intrudes
final igneous definitions
Final Igneous Definitions
  • Laccoliths: A dome-shaped mass of intruded igneous rock
  • Batholiths: A large mass of igneous rock exposed by erosion at Earth’s surface; forms the core of many mountain ranges