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Activity. Objective: Observe how Motivation Influences Participation Instructions: Build the tallest tower possible using straws and tape. Time frame: 3 minutes. Motivation. Griselda Rebollar Gilbert Hinojosa Margarita Zubieta Milly Jimenez Sherry Negrete. What is motivation?.

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  • Objective: Observe how Motivation Influences Participation
  • Instructions:
    • Build the tallest tower possible using straws and tape.
    • Time frame: 3 minutes


Griselda Rebollar

Gilbert Hinojosa

Margarita Zubieta

Milly Jimenez

Sherry Negrete

what is motivation
What is motivation?
  • According to the textbook, Motivation can be defined as the selection, persistence, intensity, and direction of behavior (Fulmer & Frijters, 2009)
behavioral view of motivation
Behavioral View of Motivation
  • The behavioral view of motivation is based on the desire of students to obtain positive reinforcement for performing a particular behavior or behavior pattern.
    • Techniques of Behavior Modification:
      • Intrinsic Motivation
      • Extrinsic
intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic Motivation
  • Occurs when a learner does something to experience inherently satisfying results.
    • i.e. paying attention, studying in order to become more knowledgeable
extrinsic motivation
Extrinsic Motivation
  • Occurs when the learner does something to earn external rewards
    • i.e.: participate in class, complete homework, study for exams
  • Excessive use of external rewards may lead to temporary behavior change, materialistic attitudes, or decreased intrinsic motivation.
social cognitive view of motivation
Social Cognitive View of Motivation
  • Persuasive Models
    • Vicarious Reinforcement
    • Observe and imitate admired models
      • “monkey see, monkey do”
  • Self-Efficacy
    • The degree to which people believe they are capable or prepared to handle particular tasks
self efficacy influences
Self-Efficacy Influences…
  • Choice of Learning Goal
    • Task Mastery
      • Doing what is necessary to learn
    • Performance-Approach goals
      • Demonstration of one’s intellectual ability
    • Performance-Avoidance goals
      • Reducing the possibility of failure
  • Outcome Expectations
      • “expectations of success or failure”
  • Attributions
      • Reasons for Success or Failure
other cognitive views of motivation
Other Cognitive Views of Motivation
  • Cognitive Development and the Need for Conceptual Organization
    • Based on Jean Piaget’s principles of equilibration, assimilation, and accommodation.
  • The Need for Achievement
    • How important is achievement?
    • “How big is your fear of failure?”
  • Attribution Theory
    • The factors that students attribute their success or failure to.
  • Beliefs about the Nature of Cognitive Ability
    • The perception a student has of his/her abilities.
effect of interest
Effect of Interest
  • Personal Interest (Individual or Topic Interest)
    • Intrinsic desire to understand a topic
    • Based on pre-existing knowledge, personal experience, and emotion
  • Situational Interest
    • Relevance to Persona life
      • Temporary
humanistic view of motivation
Humanistic View of Motivation

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • People are motivated to satisfy deficiency needs only when those needs are not met.
the role of self perceptions in motivation
The Role of Self-Perceptions in Motivation
  • Academic Self-Concept
  • Academic Achievement

Students who score relatively high on measures of academic self-concept tend to have higher grades. (Ireson &Hallam, 2009)


motivating students with technology
Motivating Students with Technology
  • Technology can be used to support both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
    • Technology can increase extrinsic motivation through drill and practice programs by providing immediate feedback.
    • Technology increases intrinsic motivation by making learning more interesting and meaningful.

Online Video

Instructor: Tim Bedley

  • 4th and 5th grade
  • 32 students in groups of 4
  • Mostly White students
  • 25 minutes long

Teacher Interview

Teacher: Mrs. M. Martinez

  • 8th grade
  • Reading
  • 120 students/40 min. classes
  • Teacher-Student Interaction-all students participate
    • Penalized if they did not
    • Great flow and engagement
  • Student-Student Interaction
    • Problem-Solving
    • Group Activities
  • Clear Instruction leads to 100% involvement
  • Rewards System
    • Movie minutes
    • Pizza party
  • Power of Persuasive Models:
    • Identification with the instructor
      • Students respect and admire their teacher; work hard to please him.
  • Reinforcing correct/proper behavior
    • Student’s raising up their hands instead of blurting out answers

Ability /Self-Efficacy

    • Importance of their ideas and opinions
      • Each group member has a task to perform
    • Student’s believe that they can find a solution to the problem
  • Extrinsic Motivation outweighs Intrinsic Motivation
  • Maslow’s Theory
    • Self-Esteem is important in order to build up motivation
      • Teacher shows excitement for every lesson in order to motivate students to participate
        • Encouragement
  • Technology
    • Engage students through movies, research, and other educational tools such as a smart board
group theory
Group Theory
  • A teacher needs to find a way to motivate a student through the use of rewards (extrinsic), a role model, and by providing a comfortable learning environment in order for the student to be successful; once the student tastes success, his/her perception about him/herself will change. This will, in turn, allow the student to motivate him/herself to learn (intrinsic).
      • ***extrinsic motivation must be regulated to prevent a student from becoming dependent on rewards. This can halt the student’s progress.

based on research findings by Sheri Coates Broussard

  • “Implications for Parents and Educators

Research in the field of motivation has revealed that extrinsic rewards decrease intrinsic motivation in young children (Kassin & Lepper, 1984). As previously mentioned, Harter (1981) stated that children’s intrinsic motivation for learning diminishes as they begin to adapt to the incentive structure of our elementary schools (e.g. grades, praise, criticism). Parents and educators should avoid using certain methods or practices in the home and school environments that extenuate intrinsic motivation. For example, parents should avoid tangible rewards for successful performance. If such a technique is used, it should not be on a regular basis, and it should not be expected by the child.

robert harris
Robert Harris
  • “Quite a few students state that they became interested in the material because the professor was interested in it. If you convey enthusiasm for your material, you will give it value and charm that it might not otherwise have…remember also that students, after having watched television for tens of thousands of hours, have been conditioned to expect signs of enthusiasm when something important is under discussion. (Robert Harris 1991)
  • Video Observation:
  • Part 1
  • Part 2
  • Part 3
  • Sheri Coates Broussard’s Thesis:
  • Robert Harris’ article:

  • Textbook:

Psychology Applied to Teaching

Snowman/McCown. 13th Edition, 2009.

  • Self-Efficacy Research

  • What is motivation?
    • to criticize
    • selection, persistence, intensity, and direction of behavior
    • correcting student behavior
    • forcing a student to participate
  • What is an example of extrinsic motivation?
    • a student volunteering to read
    • the effect of classroom environment on performance
    • observing and imitating others
    • a student receiving a reward for getting “A” Honor Roll
  • If a student has intrinsic motivation to go to study every day, he/she is most likely to do so for which reason?
    • he/she wants people to admire him/her
    • he/she wants to please his/her teacher
    • he/she appreciates acquiring new knowledge
    • all of the above

4. What is Self-Efficacy?

  • beliefs people have about their ability to succeed in a given task
  • lack of confidence
  • relevance of topics to real-life situations
  • being self-centered

5. The behavioral view of motivation includes which two techniques?

  • Success and Failure
  • Self-efficacy and Persuasive Models
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation
  • None of the above

6. Which of the following is an example of a student exhibiting self-efficacy?

  • a student studies for an exam and is confident that he/she will get an “A”
  • a student believes he/she cannot solve math equations
  • a student who refuses to attempt to read out loud
  • a student puts minimal effort into a project

7. Which of the following is not a component of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • Esteem
  • Love/Belonging
  • Self-Actualization
  • Motivation

8.In the Social Cognitive View, theorists believe that factors that strongly influence motivation are?

  • Admired models and self-efficacy
  • Culture and social interactions
  • Social status and home environment
  • Ability and Success

9. Motivating students is important in order to promote:

  • positive behavior
  • self-efficacy
  • success
  • all of the above

10.If a student realizes that a certain topic being taught in the classroom is based on events in his/her life, the student is being motivated to pay attention through which of the following?

  • Self-efficacy
  • Intrinsic Motivation
  • Situational Interest
  • Personal Interest