Charge - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Charge

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  1. Charge

  2. Warm Up • What is an electron? Where is located in an atom? • What is a proton? Where is it located in an atom?

  3. Atoms • What are the parts in an Atom?

  4. Electrons • Electrons are present in the region of space outside the nucleus. • They are negatively charged and weakly bound to the atom. • They are loosey goosey and float from one atom to the next • They like to party

  5. Protons and Neutrons • The nucleus of the atom contains positively charged protons and neutral neutrons.  • They are in the center of the atom. • The protons and neutrons will remain within the nucleus of the atom.  • They like to stay at home and watch Netflix. • THEY NEVER LEAVE THEIR HOME

  6. Charges at Rest Charge • there are two kinds of charge, positive and negative • positive charge comes from having more protons than electrons • negative charge comes from having more electrons than protons

  7. Charge Interactions • Opposite charges repel • Same charges attract

  8. Opposites Attract

  9. Sames Repel • “Why do you look at the speck of sawdust in your brother’s eye and pay no attention to the plank in your own eye?”

  10. Electrostatic charging • Materials are divided into three categories, depending on how easily they will allow charge (i.e., electrons) to flow along them. These are: • conductors • insulators • semi-conductors

  11. Conductors • the outermost electrons in the atoms are so loosely bound to their atoms that they’re free to travel around. metals, for example

  12. Insulators • In insulators, on the other hand, the electrons are much more tightly bound to the atoms, and are not free to flow, rubber, wood, plastic for example

  13. Semi-Conductors - • In between conductor and insulator • silicon is a good example

  14. Three ways that objects can be given a net charge • Charging by friction • Charging by conduction • Charging by induction

  15. Friction • this is useful for charging insulators. • rub one material with another • Electrons transfer from one material to the other. • For example, rubbing glass with silk or saran wrap generally leaves the glass with a positive charge; rubbing PVC rod with fur generally gives the rod a negative charge.

  16. Charge by Friction

  17. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/balloons

  18. Conduction • useful for charging metals and other conductors. • If a charged object touches a conductor • charging the conductor with the same sign as the charge on the object

  19. Induction •  also useful for conductors. • a charged object is brought close to the conductor, and does not touch it. • If the conductor is connected to ground (ground is basically anything neutral that can give up electrons to, or take electrons from, an object), • electrons will either flow on to it or away from it. • When the ground connection is removed , the conductor will have a charge opposite in sign to that of the charged object

  20. Polarization • is the process of separating opposite charges within an object