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The U.S. in World War II

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  1. http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/images/ww2-05.jpghttp://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/images/ww2-05.jpg The U.S. in World War II http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/images/ww2-06.jpg http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/images/ww2-02.jpg http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/ Section 1: Mobilizing for Defense Section 2: The War for Europe and North Africa Section 3: The War in the Pacific Section 4: The Home Front

  2. Japanese Advances • Japan dominates the Pacific Theatre and takes over many Allied territories • Guam • Wake Island • Hong Kong • Singapore • Burma • Indonesia • Thailand • Many other places http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/pacificwar/timeline.htm

  3. Siege of the Philippines • Japan invades the Philippine Islands • General Douglas MacArthur – commander of Allied forces in the Pacific • 80,000 U.S. and Filipino troops battled Japanese forces • Troops were fighting in Bataan when MacArthur was ordered to leave • MacArthur promised to return and liberate the Philippines “I shall return!”

  4. Fall of Bataan and the Bataan Death March • April 1942 the U.S. and Filipino troops surrendered • It marked the largest capitulation in the history of an American military command • 75,000 U.S. and Filipino troops were marched a week with little to no food or water • Those who fell behind were killed • Many atrocities committed • ¼ are believed not to have survived the journey Prisoners on the march from Bataan to the prison camp, May 1942. (National Archives) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bataan_Death_March

  5. Fall of Corregidor • Island fortress in Manila Bay • Wainwright withdraws to island to hold out against the Japanese • 11,000 troops endured constant bombardment • Corregidor surrendered in May 1942 The island stronghold of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay has fallen after a lengthy siege and Japanese troops lower the American flag.

  6. Doolittle’s Raid • Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle led 16 bomber in the attack on Tokyo on April 18, 1942 • Took off from aircraft carriers in B-25s • Hit at the heart of Japan • Improved U.S. morale • Hurt Japanese morale http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Doolittle Lt Col James H. Doolittle, USAAF (front), leader of the raiding force, wires a Japanese medal to a 500-pound bomb, during ceremonies on the flight deck of USS Hornet (CV-8), shortly before his force of sixteen B-25B bombers took off for Japan. The planes were launched on April 18, 1942.

  7. Battle of the Coral Sea • May 1942 • 1st time the ships in battle did not fire at each other • Entire battle fought in the air • Stopped Japan from planned attack of Australia View of USS Lexington’s flight deck http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/coralsea/coralsea.htm

  8. Battle of Midway • June 1942 • 1st major Japanese defeat of the Navy • Turning Point of the War • Admiral Chester Nimitz – • Commander of the American Naval Forces in the Pacific • flag ship the U.S.S. Missouri • U.S. intercepted Japanese message and ambushed them near Midway Island http://www.nimitz-museum.org/nimitzbio.htm U.S.S. Yorktown afire after being hit by Japanese bombs http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/midway/midway.htm

  9. Guadalcanal • August 1942, U.S. Marines launched the 1st major Allied land offensive in the Pacific • Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands was a strategic location for air support • Called the ‘Island of Death’ by the Japanese • Marked Japan’s first defeat on land • It kept Japan from being able to hit Allied shipping lanes and Allied held islands • Concluded in February 1943

  10. Cairo Conference and Declaration • Nov. 1943 • Meeting between Churchill, FDR, and Chiang Kai-Shek of China • Agree to terms of war concerning Japan • Unconditional Surrender • Deprive Japan of all territory acquired since 1914 • Return all land to China • Korea would be free and independent

  11. U.S. Strategy in the Pacific • Leapfrogging • U.S. would jump from island to island, missing the more fortified ones, as they moved closer and closer to Japan

  12. Yalta Conference • Feb. 1945 • Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin (Big Three) • Met at Yalta – Southern Crimea Peninsula on the Black Sea • Discuss Postwar Issues • At this time the outcome in Europe was predictable, but the war in the Pacific was very questionable

  13. Yalta Agreement • Stalin agrees to enter the war against Japan 3 months after German surrender in return for land in the Far East • For the Eastern half of Poland, Stalin agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe • Germany would be divided into 4 occupation zones • Berlin would also be divided • France and China would sponsor the conference to found the United Nations

  14. Battle of Leyte Gulf • MacArthur returns to the Philippines in Oct. 1944 with 178,000 troops and 738 ships • Japanese begin to use Kamikaze Pilots in this battle • Kamikaze – Suicide plane • 424 Kamikaze pilots sank 16 ships and damaged 80 • Battle a total disaster for the Japanese in that they lost most of their navy and would not be much of a threat for the rest of the war

  15. Iwo Jima • Feb. 1945 • U.S. needed Iwo Jima in order to launch heavily loaded bombers at Japan • Heavily defended by the Japanese • 20,700 Japanese troops entrenched • U.S. attacked with 70,000 Marines • U.S. death toll – 6,000 Marines • Japanese death toll – 20,500 • (Only 200 survive) • Iwo Jima famous for the picture of U.S. troops raising the Flag on top of Mt. Suribachi http://www.iwojima.com/raising/raisingb.htm

  16. Okinawa • April 1945 • Marines attack and 1,900 Kamikaze pilots sink 30 ships, and damage more than 300 • Once on shore the battle would last until June 21, 1945 • U.S. Causalities • 5,000 Seamen • 7,600 Troops • Japanese Causalities • 110,000 Troops • Showed the U.S. how terrible an invasion of the main islands of Japan would be

  17. Manhattan Project Click for Manhattan Project Site: http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/index.htm • Project to develop an atomic bomb • J. Robert Oppenheimer – Project Director • 600,000 Americans were involved in the project, but did not know its purpose • Very ‘Top Secret’ • Project had started when Albert Einstein had sent a letter to Roosevelt warning him of German scientist attempts at splitting atoms

  18. Using the Atomic Bomb • As the war still rages in the Pacific, experts predict that an invasion of Japan would result in 1,000,000 U.S. lives and many more Japanese lives • A proposal to use this new destructive weapon is considered by Truman • Truman did not know about the Manhattan Project until after he became President

  19. Atomic Bombs • Little Boy – Uranium 235 Core • Fat Man 1 – Plutonium Core (not sure it will work) • Fat Man 2 – Created to Test The actual Little Boy bomb ready to be loaded aboard the Enola Gay. The actual Fat Man bomb on Tinian. http://www.atomicarchive.com/Photos/LBFM/index.shtml

  20. See Video @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_test Testing the Fat Man • July 1945 • Alamogordo, New Mexico • Fat Man was detonated on a platform http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Tests/Trinity.html Assembly of Fat Man on platform Trinity test site a few weeks after detonation.

  21. Dropping the Bomb • The U.S. warned the Japanese that if they didn’t surrender a destructive force would strike • Official Reason – It would save more lives in the long run • Enola Gay – B29 Bomber • Pilot Colonel Tibbets • Dropped the Little Boy on Hiroshima, August 6, 1945 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enola_Gay Check out Hiroshima site: http://www.city.hiroshima.jp/e/peace.html http://www.enolagay.org/

  22. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasakihttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki Hiroshima • Before • After http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/hiroshima.htm http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/kids/KPSH_E/frame/hirotop11.html

  23. Japan Doesn’t Surrender • Fat Man dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945 • Real Reason for dropping the atomic bombs may have something to do the Soviet Union • Agreements made at the Yalta Conference • May 8, 1945 V-E Day • August 6, 1945 1st Bomb dropped • Why would the U.S. want to prevent Soviet participation in the Pacific? • What could we have done instead of dropping the bombs?

  24. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasakihttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki NagasakiBefore and After Panoramic view of the monument marking the hypocentre, or ground zero, of the atomic bomb explosion over Nagasaki.

  25. Japan Surrenders • September 2, 1945 • Surrender signed aboard the U.S.S. Missouri • MacArthur and Nimitz present

  26. Occupation of Japan • U.S. occupied Japan for seven years • General MacArthur commander • General Tojo and others were tried for war crimes and executed • Japan’s economy was reshaped using free-market practices • New Constitution Instituted • Women suffrage • Guaranteed basic freedoms • Forever denounce war

  27. Casualty Map Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/ww2-loss.htm

  28. Casualty Map Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/ww2-loss.htm

  29. United Nations http://www.un.org/english/ • General Assembly • Security Council • Economic and Social Council • International Court of Justice • Trusteeship Council • Secretariat http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/un.htm

  30. General Assembly • Policy Making Body of the U.N. • All member nations belong • All member nations have 1 vote each

  31. Security Council • Settles Diplomatic, Political, and Military Disputes • 5 permanent members • U.S. • United Kingdom • Russia • France • China • 11 members total (other 6 serve 2 year terms)

  32. Other Bodies of U.N. • Economic and Social Council • 18 members • Deals with human welfare and fundamental rights and freedoms • Has many groups including UNICF and the World Bank • International Court of Justice • 15 Judges • Deal with questions and disputes of International Law • Trusteeship Council • Promotes welfare of people in colonial territories and help them toward self-government • Secretariat • Deal with the day-to-day organizational and administrative concerns Organizational Chart of U.N. http://www.un.org/aboutun/chart_en.pdf