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Political Thinkers
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Political Thinkers

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  1. Objective: Explain how the ideas from the Enlightenment impacted social, political, and economic systems and institutions. Re-worded: Explain how the ideas from the Enlightenment changed government systems-Absolute Monarchy to Democracy Political Thinkers

  2. The works of Locke and Hobbes set the stage for later development. • During the 1700s in France, Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Diderot, Beccaria, and Wollstonecraft carried the ideas of new government structures further. • Although these men and woman shared a desire to reform society, they differed in their views of what needed to be done. • In France, Enlightenment thinkers were called philosophes, or philosophers. French Thinkers

  3. Part 1 1) Voltaire

  4. Published essays, plays, and works of fiction that reflected Enlightenment ideals • Believed in religious toleration and deism • Deism is the belief that God made the universe and left it to be ruled by natural law • Seeking social and political reform, Voltaire often used humor to attack the laws and customs of France Voltaire

  5. His targets were the Roman Catholic Church, the powerful aristocracy, and the monarchy. • Often, Voltaire disguised his criticism in works of fiction. • Not surprisingly, his writings got him in trouble with the government. • During the course of his career, Voltaire was imprisoned in the Bastille and exiled from his native France for many years. Voltaire

  6. What does Voltaire mean by “toleration?” • Why would Voltaire use a sense of humor when attacking the Roman Catholic Church and the monarchy? • Why would Voltaire attack the Roman Catholic Church and the monarchy? Partner Questions

  7. Tolerance • Reason • Freedom of religious belief • Freedom of speech • “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it” Voltaire

  8. Which of the four beliefs of Voltaire do you think is the most important? Explain Why. • Explain Voltaire’s quote in your own words. Partner Questions

  9. 2) Montesquieu

  10. Studied governments of ancient Rome and closely examined the contemporary governments of France and England • Concluded England had the best government because it balanced the powers of competing groups in society • The English government divided power among three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. • Separation of Powers Montesquieu

  11. What was Montesquieu’s big idea? • Describe what his big idea looks like. Partner Questions

  12. Each branch had control of the others through a system of checks and balances. • Asserted a government with divided powers was a government of limited powers. • A government of limited powers was less likely to violate the natural rights of its citizens. • Later became basis for United States Constitution. Montesquieu

  13. Describe Montesquieu’s reasoning for using the separation of powers in government. [Be sure to include the following phrases or words: checks and balances, divided power, limited power, and natural rights. • What is the significance of Montesquieu’s idea? Partner Questions

  14. Part 2 3) Rousseau

  15. Individual Freedom • Civilization corrupted peoples’ natural goodness • “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” • Only good government was one freely formed by the people and guided by the ‘general will’ of society—a direct democracy • Under such a government, people agree to give up some of theirfreedom in favor of the common good Rousseau

  16. Explain Rousseau’s quote in your own words. • What type of government did Rousseau believe was best? • Describe that type of government. Partner Questions

  17. Social Contract: it was an agreement among free individuals to create a society and a government • Legitimate government came from the consent of the governed (Like Locke) • Inspired many leaders of the French Revolution Rousseau

  18. What was the significance (impact, effect) of Rousseau’s ideas? Partner Question

  19. 4) Diderot

  20. Helped spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe and the American colonies with his multivolume Encyclopedia • The Encyclopedia included articles written by scholars, philosophers, and scientists. • Hoped this huge work would summarize all theoretical and actual knowledge Diderot

  21. Describe the Encyclopedia that Diderot created. • What was the purpose of the Encyclopedia that Diderot created? Partner Questions

  22. Goal in editing the Encyclopedia was to change the way people thought • Many articles criticized the Roman Catholic Church and supported religious toleration (freedom) • Other articles advanced the Enlightenment idea of social reform Diderot

  23. What was the goal of Diderot with regards to the Encyclopedia? • What types of ideas were contained within the Encyclopedia? Partner Questions

  24. The Roman Catholic Church and the French government condemned the Encyclopedia and tried to censor it • The church did not like challenges to its authority • The monarchy did not like radical new ideas about government and the rights of the governed (people or citizens) • Even so, approximately 20,000 copies of the Encyclopedia (a very large number for that time) were printed and distributed Diderot

  25. What was the response of the Roman Catholic Church and French monarchy to Diderot’s Encyclopedia? • Why did the Roman Catholic Church and French monarchy have this response towards Diderot’s Encyclopedia? Partner Questions

  26. 5) Beccaria

  27. Promotes criminal justice • Italian • Believed laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes • Regularly criticized common abuses of justice • Including: torturing witnesses and suspects, irregular proceedings in trials, and punishments that were arbitrary or cruel Beccaria

  28. What type of ideas did Beccaria promote? • What did Beccaria believe the purpose of laws was? • What were the common abuses of law Beccaria criticized? Partner Questions

  29. Argued that a person accused of a crime should receive a speedy trial, and that torture should never be used • The degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime • Believed capital punishment should be abolished Beccaria

  30. Rights of the accused included these two ideas by Beccaria—What were those two ideas? • How did Beccaria suggest society comes up with the right punishment for a crime? • What did Beccaria believe should be abolished? Partner Questions

  31. Beccaria based his ideas about justice on the principle that governments should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people • His ideas influenced criminal law reformers in Europe and North America • 8thAmendment-outlaws cruel and unusual punishment Beccaria

  32. What was Beccaria’s main principle about justice? • Beccaria’s ideas influenced which group of people? • What amendment in the U.S. Constitution was influenced by Beccaria’s ideas? • Bonus Question—What other amendment in the U.S. Constitution was influenced by Beccaria’s ideas? [Hint: Not in notes, but located in the Bill of Rights] Partner Question

  33. 10/22/13 • Explain Beccaria’s ideas using your note guide and partner questions. Why did Beccaria have these ideas? Journal Entry #10

  34. Wollstonecraft

  35. Philosophes or philosophers (Enlightenment thinkers) often took traditional view of women • Rousseau, for example, developed many progressive ideas about education • However, he believed that a girl’s education should mainly teach her how to be a helpful wife and mother • Other male social critics scolded women for reading novels because they thought it encourage idleness and wickedness • Still, some male writers argued for more education for women and for women’s equality in marriage Wollstonecraft

  36. Disagreed with Rousseau that women’s education should be secondary to men’s • Need educationto become virtuous (moral) and useful • Urged women to enter the male-dominated fields of medicine and politics Wollstonecraft

  37. Which thinker advocated women’s rights? • What were her suggestions to further women’s rights? Partner Questions

  38. Other women made important contributions to the Enlightenment in other ways: In Paris and other European cities, wealthy women helped spread Enlightenment ideas through social gatherings called salons Wollstonecraft

  39. Describe the salons during the Enlightenment. Partner Question

  40. Belief in Progress-new discoveries in science, human reason could solve social problems, reformers urged an end to slavery and argued for greater social equality, as well as a more democratic style of government Legacy of the Enlightenment

  41. A more secular outlook-non-religious • People began to question openly their religious beliefs and the teachings of the church Legacy of the Enlightenment

  42. Importance of the Individual-therise of individualism • Looked to themselves for guidance • Use your own ability to reason in order to judge what was right or wrong • Emphasized the importance of the individual in society • Government, they argued, was formed by individuals to promote their welfare Legacy of the Enlightenment

  43. What were three legacies of the Enlightenment? • Which of the three legacies is the most important and explain why? Partner Questions