Unit 4 Part 2: World War II and The Holocaust.
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7-4.5 Summarize the causes and course of World War II, including drives for empire, appeasement and isolationism, the invasion of Poland, the Battle of Britain, the invasion of the Soviet Union, the “Final Solution,” the Lend-Lease program, Pearl Harbor, Stalingrad, the campaigns in North Africa and the Mediterranean, the D-Day invasion, the island-hopping campaigns, and the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
7-4.6 Analyze the Holocaust and its impact on European society and Jewish culture, including Nazi policies to eliminate the Jews and other minorities, the Nuremberg trials, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the rise of nationalism in Southwest Asia (Middle East), the creation of the state of Israel, and the resultant conflicts in the region.
The high cost of reparations, the loss of territory, and the aftermath of war led to the Great Depression, which led to people’s anger over the government—This led to the rise of Adolf Hitler.
Germany and Italy helped Francisco Franco win the Spanish Civil War in 1936. This set up a Fascist government in Spain.
Hitler demanded the Sudetenland (a part of Czechoslovakia that had mostly German-speaking people).
Hitler went ahead and invaded Czechoslovakia and then Italy invaded Albania in Africa.
In 1939, Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin shocked the world when they both signed the Non-Aggression Pact (They agreed to not attack each other and to split Poland onGermany later attacked).
The Germans invaded France in May 1940.
Retreating Allied forces made it to Dunkirk and found themselves trapped between the advancing Nazis and the English Channel.
The British sent every boat they could get across the English Channel to pick up troops off the beaches of Dunkirk.
The event at Dunkirk is called a miracle because the retreating allies had lost hope and then the British pulled through for them and rescued 338,000 men.
(Luftwaffe) trying to break the British will to resist and destroy the RAF (Royal Air Force)
** 40,000 Londoners were killed and 1 in 6 left homeless*
whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills: WE SHALL NEVER SURRENDER.”
The Cash and Carry Policy didn’t help the Allies enough, so Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act.
Great Britain.........................$31 billionSoviet Union...........................$11 billionFrance......................................$ 3 billionChina.......................................$1.5 billionOther European.................$500 millionSouth America...................$400 millionThe amount totaled: $48,601,365,000
The Japanese moved quickly throughout the islands in the Pacific by taking over Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong, the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, and Burma.
Next, the US defeated Japan in the Battle of Midway by damaging hundreds of Japanese planes and all aircraft carriers (big ships that carry planes).
At the Battle of Guadalcanal, the US launched their first offensive against Japan (US attacked Japan).
The Germans were also defeated by the Soviet Union in the Battle of Stalingrad in February 1943.
The Allies decided to free France and make their way toward Berlin, Germany.
Hitler’s final attempt to achieve victory against the Allies was known as the Battle of the Bulge.
Harry Truman ordered the dropping of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan (August 6, 1945 ).
Hitler wanted to eliminate all people who were not Aryans and who he believed caused Germany’s problems.
When the Ottoman Empire was defeated in WWI, Palestine became under the control of the British.
The creation of Israel led to nationalism (desire for self-rule) from the Palestinians and caused many conflicts that have still not been resolved.
Gamal Nasser, leader of Egypt, and other Arab leaders prepared for war against Israel.
In 1973, Arabs attacked Israel on the holy Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. (Yom Kippur War)
Many Arabs were upset with this agreement and a group of Muslims assassinated Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.
Jews were angry with this agreement and a Jewish man assassinated Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.
However, human rights issues are difficult to enforce because it’s hard to interfere in other nations affairs because it could possibly result in a war.