What is Leadership?. Organizational Leadership An interpersonal process that involves attempts to influence other people in attaining organizational goals Leadership behavior: Can be shown by anyone Is expected of most managers Is part of effective management. What is Leadership?.
Adapted from Exhibit 9.2
Legitimate—How much authority does the organization give to your position?
Reward—Are you able to give others the rewards they want?
Coercive—Are you able to punish others or withhold rewards?
Expert—Do you have knowledge that others need?
Referent—Do others respect you and want to be like you?
Adapted from Exhibit 9.3
How much power should be used?
Which types of power should be used?
How can power
be put to use?
Three leadership variables:
Locus of leadership:
Achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative
Even tempered, calm under stress, unself-centered, nondefensive
Motivation to Lead
Desire to influence others, comfortable using power
Honesty and Integrity
Trustworthy, open, forthright
Set high goals for self and others, optimistic about overcoming obstacles (if taken to extreme, can lead to arrogance and sense of infallibility)Traits of Effective Leadership
Adapted from Exhibit 9.7
Sensitivity, persuasiveness, empathy
Logical reasoning, judgment, analytical
Self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation,
empathy and social skill
Ability to “read” other people
Adapted from Exhibit 9.9
Specifies roles and tasks
Sets performance standards
Is friendly and supportive
Shows trust and confidence in subordinates
Shows concern for subordinates’ welfare
Gives recognition to subordinates for accomplishmentsLeaders’ Behaviors
Two fundamental types of leader behaviors
BLAKE & MOUTON: MANAGERIAL GRID
Best managers are both task- and people-oriented
Leaders who inspire followers to make major changes or to achieve
at very high levels
Emphasizes the exchange of rewards for followers’ compliance
Important points about followers:
HERSEY AND BLANCHARD: SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL
Focuses on followers’ “readiness” to engage in learning new tasks
LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE (LMX) THEORY
Focuses on types of relationships between a leader and a follower
Quality of leader-
Focus of interest
Situational variables affecting leadership are:
FIEDLER: CONTINTENCY LEADERSHIP MODEL
Focuses on type of leader and the degree of favorability of the situation
HOUSE: PATH-GOAL THEORY
Use leadership approach based on both subordinate skills and situation
Premise: Leadership effectiveness depends on
1) favorability of situation and 2) type of leader
The task is:
Frustrating, boring, stressful, structured, and routine
Supportive Leadership Style
Highly experienced and competent
(i.e., increased performance)
The task is:
Interesting but ambiguous, nonstressful, unstructured, varied
Adapted from Exhibit 9.14