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What is Leadership?. Organizational Leadership An interpersonal process that involves attempts to influence other people in attaining organizational goals Leadership behavior: Can be shown by anyone Is expected of most managers Is part of effective management. What is Leadership?.

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what is leadership
What is Leadership?

Organizational Leadership

  • An interpersonal process that involves attempts to influence other people in attaining organizational goals

Leadership behavior:

  • Can be shown by anyone
  • Is expected of most managers
  • Is part of effective management
what is leadership1
What is Leadership?

Effective leadership

  • Influence that assists an organization to meet its goals and perform successfully

Effective leaders:

  • Enable people to accomplish more than if there had been no such leadership
  • Unlock other people’s potential
leading and managing the same or different

Leaders and Managers

Leaders

Managers

Adapted from Exhibit 9.1

Leading and Managing: The Same or Different?
  • Managing ought to involve most of the activities thought of as leading
  • Organizations need their managers to incorporate leadership roles into their behavior
does leadership differ across national cultures
Does Leadership Differ Across National Cultures?
  • Some leader attributes are universally viewed as being either positive or negative
  • Some leader attributes are viewed as positive or negative depending on the culture
  • No best way to lead
  • Must take into account the characteristics of the leader, followers, and situation

Adapted from Exhibit 9.2

leadership and power
Leadership and Power

Power

  • The capacity or ability to influence

Power can:

  • Lead to greater capacity to influence
  • Be used to overcome resistance
  • Be abused and lead to undesirable consequences
  • Produce positive outcomes if used skillfully
types of power
Types of Power

Position

Power

Legitimate—How much authority does the organization give to your position?

Reward—Are you able to give others the rewards they want?

Coercive—Are you able to punish others or withhold rewards?

Personal

Power

Expert—Do you have knowledge that others need?

Referent—Do others respect you and want to be like you?

Adapted from Exhibit 9.3

four key issues in using power
Four Key Issues in Using Power

How much power should be used?

Should power

be shared?

Which types of power should be used?

How can power

be put to use?

the leadership process and the locus of leadership
The Leadership Process and the Locus of Leadership

Three leadership variables:

  • The leader
  • The situation
  • The followers

Locus of leadership:

  • Where the three variables intersect

Locus of

Leadership

traits of effective leadership

Drive

Achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative

Emotional maturity

Even tempered, calm under stress, unself-centered, nondefensive

Motivation to Lead

Desire to influence others, comfortable using power

Honesty and Integrity

Trustworthy, open, forthright

Self-confidence

Set high goals for self and others, optimistic about overcoming obstacles (if taken to extreme, can lead to arrogance and sense of infallibility)

Traits of Effective Leadership

Leader

Adapted from Exhibit 9.7

charismatic leadership
Charismatic Leadership

Charismatic leadership

  • Is a strong form of referent power
  • Is based on individual inspirational qualities rather than formal power
  • Generates followers who identify with charismatic leaders because of these exceptional qualities
  • Is rare; very few people are considered truly “charismatic”
leaders skills
Leaders’ Skills

TECHNICAL SKILLS

Specialized knowledge

INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

Sensitivity, persuasiveness, empathy

CONCEPTUAL SKILLS

Logical reasoning, judgment, analytical

abilities

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

Self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation,

empathy and social skill

SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE

Ability to “read” other people

Adapted from Exhibit 9.9

leaders behaviors
Task Behaviors

Specifies roles and tasks

Schedules work

Sets performance standards

Develops procedures

People Behaviors

Is friendly and supportive

Shows trust and confidence in subordinates

Shows concern for subordinates’ welfare

Gives recognition to subordinates for accomplishments

Leaders’ Behaviors

Two fundamental types of leader behaviors

leadership approaches based on leader s behavior
Leadership Approaches Based on Leader’s Behavior

BLAKE & MOUTON: MANAGERIAL GRID

Best managers are both task- and people-oriented

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

Leaders who inspire followers to make major changes or to achieve

at very high levels

TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP

Emphasizes the exchange of rewards for followers’ compliance

managerial grid

9

High

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

Low

1

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

8

9

Low

High

Managerial Grid
  • Focuses on two leadership behaviors: concern for people and concern for results
  • Leaders can be
    • High in both
    • Low in both
    • In the middle on both
    • High in one, low in the other

Good

Leaders

Mediocre

Leaders

Concern for People

Poor

Leaders

Concern for Results

transformational leadership
Transformational Leadership

Transformational leaders

  • Empower and coach followers
  • Motivate followers to:
    • Ignore self-interest
    • Work for the larger good of the organization
    • Achieve significant accomplishments
    • Make major changes
transactional leadership
Transactional Leadership

Transactional leadership

  • Is more passive
  • Emphasizes exchange or rewards or benefits for compliance with leader’s requests
  • Appeals to followers’ self-interests to motivate their performance
  • Routine changes
the leadership process and followers behaviors
The Leadership Process and Followers’ Behaviors

Important points about followers:

  • They can impact a leader’s success
  • They can affect the leader’s style and success
  • They may be as informed as leaders and may share power with them
  • Usually have lower formal authority
  • Leaders are usually followers of someone else
  • They have implicit leadership theories
leadership approaches based on follower s behavior
Leadership Approaches Based on Follower’s Behavior

HERSEY AND BLANCHARD: SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL

Focuses on followers’ “readiness” to engage in learning new tasks

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE (LMX) THEORY

Focuses on types of relationships between a leader and a follower

situational leadership model
Situational Leadership Model
  • Leadership behaviors depend on “readiness” of followers
    • Ability in a new task
    • Willingness to undertake the new task
  • Leadership behaviors
    • Supportiveness (people orientation)
    • Directiveness (task orientation)
leader member exchange theory
Leader-Member Exchange Theory
  • Quality of the leader-member relationship can influence behavior of subordinates
  • Leader should build a strong, mutually beneficial relationship
  • Relationship goes through stages:
    • Stranger
    • Acquaintance
    • Maturity
leader member relationships
Leader-Member Relationships

Relationship

stage

Relationship Characteristics

Stranger

Acquaintance

Maturity

Relationship-

building phase

Quality of leader-

member exchange

Amounts of

reciprocal Influence

Focus of interest

Role-

Finding

Low

None

Self

Role-

Making

Medium

Limited

Role-

Implementation

High

Almost

Unlimited

Team

Time

the situation
The Situation

Situational variables affecting leadership are:

  • Tasks to be performed
    • If task changes, leadership style changes
    • Unstructured task done by experts  supportive leadership
    • Structured task done by inexperienced people  directive leadership
  • Organizational context
    • Immediate work group + larger organization
    • Organizational culture influences leadership style
      • Also strategy, structure, HR practices, controls
leadership approaches based on situation
Leadership Approaches Based on Situation

FIEDLER: CONTINTENCY LEADERSHIP MODEL

Focuses on type of leader and the degree of favorability of the situation

HOUSE: PATH-GOAL THEORY

Use leadership approach based on both subordinate skills and situation

leadership contingency theory
Leadership Contingency Theory

Premise: Leadership effectiveness depends on

1) favorability of situation and 2) type of leader

  • FAVORABLE SITUATION
  • Good subordinate relationships
  • Highly structured task
  • High amount of position power
  • UNFAVORABLE SITUATION
  • Poor subordinate relationships
  • Unstructured task
  • Leader lacks position power
  • TASK-ORIENTED LEADERS
  • Do best when the situation is either:
  • Highly favorable, or
  • Highly unfavorable
  • PEOPLE-ORIENTED LEADERS
  • Do best when the situation is either:
  • Moderately favorable, or
  • Moderately unfavorable
path goal theory
Path-Goal Theory
  • Leader’s job is to increase subordinate satisfaction and effort
  • Assumes that:
    • One leadership approach will work better in some task situations than others
    • Leaders can modify their styles to suit the situation
  • Two basic leadership behaviors:
    • Supportive
    • Directive
path goal theory1
Path-Goal Theory

IF

The task is:

Frustrating, boring, stressful, structured, and routine

Supportive Leadership Style

(Person oriented)

AND

Subordinates are:

Highly experienced and competent

Goal

(i.e., increased performance)

IF

The task is:

Interesting but ambiguous, nonstressful, unstructured, varied

Directive

Leadership Style

(Task oriented)

AND

Subordinates are:

inexperienced

Adapted from Exhibit 9.14