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Perspectives with P ANDA. The new accelerator complex of GSI The antiproton’s activity The P ANDA scientific program. Paola Gianotti LNF. FAIR Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. SIS 100/300. SIS. UNILAC. FRS. ESR. CBM. PP. Atomic Physics. PANDA. Super FRS. HESR.

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Perspectives with p anda

Perspectives with PANDA

  • The new accelerator complex of GSI

  • The antiproton’s activity

  • The PANDA scientific program

Paola Gianotti

LNF


Perspectives with p anda

FAIR

Facility for Antiproton

and Ion Research

SIS 100/300

SIS

UNILAC

FRS

ESR

CBM

PP

Atomic

Physics

PANDA

Super

FRS

HESR

CR

+

RESR

p Target

NESR

Key Technical Features

FLAIR

  • Cooled beams

  • Rapidly cycling superconducting magnets

FAIR: the GSI future facility

Primary Beams

  • 1012/s; 1.5 GeV/u; 238U28+

  • Factor 100-1000 present in intensity

  • 2(4)x1013/s 30 GeV protons

  • 1010/s 238U73+ up to 25 (- 35) GeV/u

Secondary Beams

  • Broad range of radioactive beams up to 1.5 - 2 GeV/u; up to factor 10 000 in

  • intensity over present

  • Antiprotons 3 (0) - 30 GeV

Storage and Cooler Rings

  • Radioactive beams

  • e – A collider

  • 1011 stored and cooled 0.8 - 14.5 GeV antiprotons


Perspectives with p anda

Magnetic Fusion

Inertial

Cofinement

Fusion

Sun Core

Temperature [eV]

PHELIX

Laser

Heating

Ideal plasmas

Strongly coupled

plasmas

Ion Beam

Heating

Jupiter

SIS 18

solid state

density

Sun Surface

Density [cm-3]

Summary of Research Areas at the GSI Future Facility

Structure and Dynamics of Nuclei - Radioactive Beams

Nucleonic matter

Nuclear astrophysics

Fundamental symmetries

Hadron Structure and Quark-Gluon Dynamics - Antiprotons

Non-pertubative QCD

Quark-gluon degrees of freedom

Confinement and chiral symmetry

Hypernuclear physics

Nuclear Matter and the Quark-Gluon Plasma - Relativistic HI - Beams

Nuclear phase diagram

Compressed nuclear/strange matter

Deconfinement and chiral symmetry

Physics of Dense Plasmas and Bulk Matter - Bunch Compression

Properties of high density plasmas

Phase transitions and equation of state

Laser - ion interaction with and in plasmas

Ultra High EM-Fields and Applications - Ions & Petawatt Laser

QED and critical fields

Ion - laser interaction

Ion - matter interaction


Perspectives with p anda

_

HESR - High Energy Storage Ring

High luminosity mode

High resolution mode

  • Lumin. = 2 x 1032 cm-2 s-1

  • dp/p ~ 10-4 (stochastic cooling)

  • dp/p ~ 10-5 (electron cooling)

  • Lumin. = 1031 cm-2 s-1


Perspectives with p anda

Charmonium ( cc ) spectroscopy: precision measurements of mass,

width, decay branches of all charmonium states, especially for

extracting information on the quark confinement.

Search for gluonic excitations (charmed hybrids, glueballs)

in the charmonium mass range (3 – 5 GeV/c2).

Search for modifications of meson properties in the nuclear medium,

and their possible relationship to the partial restoration of chiral

symmetry for light quarks.

Precision g-ray spectroscopy of single and double hypernuclei for

Extracting information on their structure and on the hyperon-nucleon

and hyperon-hyperon interaction.

PANDA Antiproton Physics Program

Inverted DVCS to extract parton distributions. Proton form-factors at large

Q2 up to 25 GeV2/c4. D-meson decay spectroscopy BR and decay dalitz plots CP-Violation in the D/Λsector.


Perspectives with p anda

_ mass,

e+e-→ Y’

p p→ c1,2

→ gc1,2

→ gJ/y

→ ggJ/y

→ ge+e-

→ gge+e-

CBall

E835

100

cc1

1000

_

  • pp reactions:

CBall ev./2 MeV

E 835 ev./pb

ECM

3500

3510

3520 MeV

_

Br(e+e-→y) ·Br(y→ ghc) = 2.5 10-5

pp → hc = 1.2 10-3

Br( )

Charmonium Physics

  • e+e- interactions:

  • - Only 1-- states are formed

  • Other states only by secondary

  • decays (moderate mass resolution)

  • All states directly formed

  • (very good mass resolution)


Perspectives with p anda

-- mass,

-+

1

1

2

10

c

c

q

q

c

i

(qq)(qq)

t

t

Multiquarks

o

h

x

g

i

E

l

(qq) g

Hybrids

c

i

1

t

o

x

E

Glueballs

-2

10

0

2000

4000

MeV/

c

2

Exotic hadrons

The QCD spectrum is much rich than that of the naive quark model also the gluons can act as hadron components

The “exotic hadrons” fall in 3

general categories:

In the cc meson spectrum the density of

states is lower and therefore the overlap


Perspectives with p anda

Exotic hadrons mass,

In the light meson region, about 10 states have been classified as “Exotics”. Almost all of them have been seen in pp...


Perspectives with p anda

Charmonium Physics mass,

Charmonium spectrum, glueballs, spin-exotics cc-glue hybrids with experimental results

Y(3943) enancement in J/Ψω

mass spectrum both four quarks state and charm- hybrid hypotesis have been proposed

X(3872) first seen by Belle

then confirmed by others

is hardly considered a cc state

From G.S. Bali, Eur. Phys. J A 19 (2004) 1

B-factories are abundant sources of data on charmonium


Perspectives with p anda

Charmed Hybrids mass,

  • Flux tube-Model predicts H

    DD** (+c.c.) decays

    If mH<4290 MeV/c2→

    GH < 50 MeV/c2

  • Some exotics can decay neither to DD nor to DD*+c.c.

    • Small number of final states with small phase space

r0=0.5fm

  • Gluonic excitations of the

    quark-antiquark-potential may lead to bound states

  • LQCD:

    mH ~ 4.2-4.5 GeV ; JPC 1-+


Perspectives with p anda

Mesons in nuclear matter mass,

One of the fundamental question of QCD is the generation of

MASS

The light meson masses are larger than the sum of the constituent quark masses!

Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking seems to play a decisive role in the mass generation of light mesons.

How can we check this?


Perspectives with p anda

Proton-Proton Collisions mass,

Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

K-

K-

K+

K+

Hadrons in nuclear matter

Since density increase

in nuclear matter is possible a

partial restoration of chiral symmetry

  • Light quarks are sensitive to quark condensate

  • Evidence for mass changes of pions and kaons has been observed

  • Deeply bound pionic atoms

  • Kaon-production environments

f*p =0.78f p


Perspectives with p anda

Mass modifications of mesons mass,

pionic atoms

π-

With p beam up to 15GeV/c these studies

will be extended

25 MeV

π

π+

KAOS/FOPI

K+

K

100 MeV

K-

HESR

D

in-medium

free masses

103

D-

D-

102

50 MeV

D+

10

s(nb)

vacuum

nuclear medium

ρ = ρ0

1

pp→ D+D-

10-1

D+

10-2

4

5

6

7

T (GeV)

Mesons in nuclear matter

  • Sub-threshold enhancement for D and D

  • meson production

  • expected signal:

    • strong enhancement of the D-meson

    • cross section, relative D+ D- yields,

    • in thenear/sub-threshold region.


Perspectives with p anda

thus resulting in a substantial mass,

increase of width of these states

3,74

vacuum

3,64

1r0

3,54

2r0

Idea

  • Study relative changes of yield

    and width of the charmonium state Y(3770).

    BR into l+l- (10-5 in free space)

Mesons in nuclear matter

GeV/c2 Mass

The lowering of the DD thresh.

  • allow Y’,cc2 charmonium states

    to decay into this channel

y(33S1)

4

y(13D1)

3.8

y(23S1)

3.6

cc2(13P2)

  • states above DD thresh. would

  • have larger width

cc1(13P1)

3.4

cc1(13P0)

3.2

y(13S1)

hc(11S0)

3

Predictions by Ye.S. Golubeva et al., Eur.Phys.J. A 17,(2003)275


Perspectives with p anda

L mass, 0

quark-gluon string model

(Kaidalov & Volkovitsky)

S-

_

X+ X-

d

s

X-

d

u

s

s

d

d

s

s

s

s

W-

Double-Lambda Hypernuclei

  • Use pp Interaction to produce a hyperon “beam” (t~10-10 s) which is tagged by the antihyperon or its decay products


Perspectives with p anda

X mass, -capture:

X-p  LL +28 MeV

g

Production of Double Hypernuclei

2.

Slowing down and capture

of X- in

secondary target nucleus

Kaons

_

trigger

X

_

p

3 GeV/c

X-

X-(dss) p(uud) L(uds)L(uds)

1.

Hyperon-

antihyperon

production

at threshold

L

g

L

+28MeV

3.

g-spectroscopy with Ge-detectors


Perspectives with p anda

  • CP-violation mass, (D/Λ – sector)

  • - D0D0 mixing

  • SM prediction < 10-8

  • - compare angular decay

  • asymmetries for ΛΛ

  • SM prediction ~ 2·10-5

  • Rare D-decays:

  • D+→ μ+ ν(BR 10-4)

  • D → μ+ μ- (BR 10-13)

c

m+

n

d

Cross section σ ≈ 2.5pb @ s ≈10 GeV2

L = 2·1032 cm-2 s-1→ 103 events per month

W+

hep-ph/0112235

Other physics topics

  • Reversed Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and Drell-Yan

  • processes to study GPD


Perspectives with p anda

Other physics topics mass,

  • Electromagnetic Form Factors of the Proton in the

  • Time-Like Region from threshold up to 20 GeV2/c4

  • Precise measurement of cross-

  • sections of esclusive final states

  • with different nuclear targets for

  • neutrino experiments



Perspectives with p anda

General Purpose mass, Detector

  • Detector requests:

  • nearly 4psolid angle(partial wave analysis)

  • high rate capability (2·107 annihilations/s)

  • good PID(g,e,m,p, K, p)

  • momentum resolution (~1%)

  • vertex info for D, K0S,L(ct= 317 mmfor D±)

  • efficient trigger(e,m, K, D,L)

  • modular design (Hypernuclei experiments)


Perspectives with p anda

P mass, ANDA Detector (top view)

target spectrometer

forward spectrometer

DIRC:

Detecting InternallyReflectedCherenkov

light

straw tubetracker

mini driftchambers

muon

counter

Solenoidal

magnet

iron yoke

micro vertexdetector

electromagneticcalorimeter

Length: ~2 m upstream, ~10 m downstream


Perspectives with p anda

Summary mass,

  • A new Hadron-Facility is underway in Europe: FAIR @ GSI

  • A wide experimetal physics program going from meson spectroscopy

  • to hypernuclear physics etc. will be accessible with the new GSI

  • antiproton beam

  • New and interesting results will come in many fields thanks to the

  • unprecedent characteristics of the beam and to the potentiality of the

  • PANDA general porpose detector