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Analyzing Student Work. Robert V. Jervis Consultant for the Council of Chief Staff School Officers Comprehensive Social Studies Assessment Project. Analyzing Student Work: A Research-Based Model.

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Analyzing student work
Analyzing Student Work

Robert V. Jervis Consultant for the Council of Chief Staff School Officers Comprehensive Social Studies Assessment Project

Analyzing student work a research based model

Analyzing Student Work: A Research-Based Model

A Strategy for improving student achievement adapted from the Standards in Practice Model available from ASCD

Analyzing student work1
Analyzing Student Work

  • Why is analyzing student work the logical next step in curriculum alignment and module development?

    • A Focus on Teaching

      • or

    • A Focus on Learning

The learning blueprint focusing on instructional priorities





    • Teacher

    • Student

The learning blueprint focusing on instructional priorities1






What can an analysis of student work tell us
What can an analysis of student work tell us?

Principles that guide effective instruction

  • Are teachers teaching to the standards?

  • Is there alignment of standards (curriculum), instruction, and assessment?

  • Are teacher tasks and activities elevating student thinking to the level of the standards?

  • Does assessment provide feedback to students of progress toward understanding?

  • Is there rigorous instruction in the classroom?

High expectations of all students
High Expectations of All Students

  • Continuous collaborative feedback to the teaching-learning process enables students to rise to the level of the standard.

Rigorous assignments
Rigorous Assignments

  • Students can do no better than the assignments they are given.

A focus on learning
A Focus on Learning

  • What is it we want all students to learn?

  • How will we know if they have learned it?

  • How will we respond when they don’t?

    Rick DuFour

Analyzing student work2
Analyzing Student Work

  • What does a training model for analyzing student work look like?

Analyzing student work3
Analyzing Student Work

  • Summative Assessments

    • Rigor of Assignments

    • Alignment to Standards

    • Quality of Student Work

    • Teacher and Student Feedback

Other benefits of focusing on analyzing student work
Other Benefits of Focusing on Analyzing Student Work

  • Functioning as a Team Member

  • Planning and Assessing Collaboratively

  • Discussion of Higher Order Thinking Skills

  • Sharing in the Teaching-Learning Process

  • Justification for including Team Planning as Priority During the School Day

Phase i analyzing the task
Phase I: Analyzing the Task

  • The team meets to review the task focusing on the rigor of the task and the context for demonstrating understanding

  • The team discusses the standards identified for the task and discusses how well this task demonstrates an understanding of these standards

  • The team reviews the scoring guide for the task to ensure that the criteria provides:

    • Clear and accurate directions for the student

    • Specific criteria for developing the product or performance

    • Opportunities for students to demonstrate understanding

Presenting the task the teacher cover sheet
PRESENTING THE TASK:The Teacher Cover Sheet

  • Context for the Task

  • Connection to Standards

  • “The Task”

  • The Scoring Tool

Phase ii analyzing student work
Phase II:Analyzing Student Work

  • The teacher provides:

    • A brief review of the task

    • A brief review of the scoring guide

    • A review of the standards related to the task

  • The team:

    • Uses the scoring guide individually to score the student samples

    • Discusses the scores with the team and shares strengths and weaknesses of the student work using the scoring guide as the basis for comment

    • Suggests specific teaching strategies which might improve student achievement

Feedback form
Feedback Form

  • Phase I: Guiding Questions

    • High Expectations

    • Focus on State Standards

    • Effectiveness of Scoring Tool

  • Phase II: Guiding Questions

    • Task Revision

    • Coming to Consensus

    • Constructive Feedback

Role definition
Role Definition

  • What are the roles of all of the participants in the process?

Break time

Day Dreaming Time

Critical roles in the implementation process
Critical Roles in the Implementation Process

  • The Facilitator

  • The Principal of the School

  • Team Members

  • Outside Support

Resource guide technical support
RESOURCE GUIDETechnical Support

  • Helping the school team plan the task

    • Rigor

    • Connection to Standards

    • Creating the Scoring Tool

  • Monitoring the Process

    • Understanding the Task

    • Scoring Process

    • Coming to Consensus

    • Feedback on Teaching Strategies

Resource guide technical support1
RESOURCE GUIDETechnical Support

  • Encouraging Principal Support

    • Purpose

    • Process

    • Commitment

    • Role of Each Stakeholder

    • Team and Teacher Selection

  • “Talking and Walking” with the Principal

    • Student Work on Display

    • Connection to Research-Based Strategies and On-Going Initiatives

  • Staff Readiness

  • Logistics

Implementation model

  • Organizing for Success

    • Forming Teams

    • Collecting Data

    • Analyzing Results

    • Providing Feedback on the Plan

Monitoring for student performance

  • Principal Observations

    • Student Behaviors

    • Interaction with Students

    • Samples of Student Work

Planning an onsite visit
Planning an Onsite Visit

  • Critical Roles in the Process

  • The Instructional Monitoring Process

    • Setting Priorities for the Visit

    • Initial Visit – A Focus on Instruction

    • Second Visit – Analysis of Student Work

Pause for reflection sharing ideas
Pause for Reflection:Sharing Ideas

  • Other Ideas for Getting A School Started in the Process

    • Teaching Goal Setting

    • Providing Resources

    • Schedule and Planning

    • Highlighting Team Efforts

    • Expanding the Nucleus to a School-Wide Initiative


Let’s see if it flies!

A sample task
A Sample Task

Part Two: Modeling the Process

Buy me! Buy me!

Adapted from “Focused Feedback”, Marcy Emburger

Maryland Classroom, September, 2000

Assessing the worth of the task
Assessing the Worth of the Task

  • Is this task worth the effort it will take to develop and score it?

  • Is it a DOL IV task in which students are asked to problem solve, make a decision, investigate an issue, or invent something?

  • If it is a writing assignment, is the topic worth writing about and of interest to the the students?

  • Are students being challenged?

Context of the task
Context of the Task

This task is part of an 8th grade unit on how magazines use art and persuasive techniques to persuade us to buy their products.

At the beginning of the unit, the teacher asked students to talk about what they already knew about advertisements in magazines and on television.

She also used examples of various kinds of advertising to demonstrate techniques of advertising. She modeled the process of analyzing advertisements to identify the persuasive techniques by using a think aloud strategy to explain her thinking to the class.

She then had several students practice the process as they analyzed various advertisements and went through the think aloud process for the rest of the class. Class discussion added additional information to the process.

Students then worked in small groups so each student would have the opportunity to use the think aloud process to analyze an advertisement from a magazine.

The teacher is now ready to individually assess student understanding of how magazine advertisements are used to persuade us to buy their products.

Assessing the connection of the task to state content standards
Assessing the Connection of the Task to State Content Standards

  • Does the task provide evidence of an understanding of a state standard(s)?

  • Is the connection the teacher making a realistic one?

  • Are there opportunities to connect this task to standards in other program areas?

  • Are connections made to specific skills?

Standards Standards

  • This task targets the following indicators:

  • Writing to Inform (Grades 6-8)

  • Students support all statements and claims with relevant anecdotes, descriptions, facts, statistics, and/or specific information.

  • Students write reports for an intended audience that convey a clear and accurate perspective on the subject, and that support the main idea with facts, details, and explanations.

  • Students write essays for an intended audience and purpose that state the thesis or purpose of the paper, that follow an organizational pattern, and that offer compelling evidence in the form of facts and details to support the thesis.

Assessing the scoring tool
Assessing the Scoring Tool Standards

  • Does the scoring tool provide clear and accurate directions telling the students what the product should look like?

  • Does the scoring tool provide opportunities for the student to be creative and inventive?

  • Does the scoring tool provide opportunities to demonstrate understanding?

Rubric Standards

4: This answer shows a thorough understanding of the advertisement with evidence of connections between the reader’s ideas and the advertisement; the answer has references to text/art in support of inferences to the advertisement’s effectiveness; responses indicate clear personal judgment with support.

3: This answer shows a good understanding and evidence of connections to the reader’s ideas; the answer has references to text/art in support of inferences to the advertisement’s effectiveness; responses indicate a personal judgment with some support.

2: This answer shows some surface understanding of persuasion; the answer has minimal references to text/art in support of inferences to the advertisement’s effectiveness; responses indicate little personal judgment of effectiveness.

1: This answer indicates there may be some understanding of the advertisement, but there is little evidence of constructing meaning (some unsupported inferences).

0: No evidence of understanding

Scoring the task individually
Scoring the Task (Individually) Standards

Is each team member using the scoring guide to score the student samples? Is each team member scoring each example of student work? Are they keeping their score confidential until it is time to discuss the score with the team?


Is the feedback corrective in nature? Is the feedback specific to the criteria and the scoring guide? Have I used questions to focus the feedback on specific criteria? Have I provided some positive feedback? Will I be able to use the focused feedback to make suggestions to the teacher?

What did the students work show
What did the students’ work show? Standards

  • A need to do some re-teaching

  • Student work showed only a surface understanding of the criteria.

  • Students did not make connections between their ideas and the advertisements.

  • Most students were not able to link the art and the text.

  • Responses did not indicate clear personal judgment with relevant or adequate support.

Focused feedback

  • Is the feedback corrective in nature?

  • Is the feedback specific to the criteria and the scoring guide?

  • Is the feedback provided in a positive manner?

  • Does the feedback lead to specific suggested teaching strategies for the classroom?

Teaching strategies
Teaching Strategies Standards

  • What are the areas in which students are performing well?

  • What teaching strategies seem to be working well?

  • What are the areas in which students need to improve?

  • What specific teaching strategies might we suggest to bring about improvement?

  • What specific feedback should the teacher give the students about overall performance on this task?

  • Are there any students who need individual help in critical areas of performance?

Teacher feedback
Teacher Feedback Standards

How I have helped the team become a more effective instructional unit?

Analyzing student work4
Analyzing Student Work Standards

  • Analyzing student work is a logical extension of the module development process

    • Provides the critical element of feedback to the planning process