Unit Four Gender
Nature vs. Nurture Debate • Are people male/female because they are born as one or the other OR are people male/female because of how we are raised? • Essentially: can you “make” someone who is sexually defined as a boy into a gender-defined girl by putting a dress on him, giving him a doll to play with, and raising him as a girl?
Sex vs. Gender • Sex-classifying people as male/female based on biological characteristics • Gender-a sense of being male/female based on learned cultural values
Boys vs. Girls Traditionally • Boys -less fragile -treated rougher -clothing-functional and practical -toys-trucks, games, sports equipment, soldiers, guns -chores-outdoor, cars, trash, mechanical • Girls -cute, sweet, cuddly -gently treated -clothing-feminine and frilly/dainty -toys-dolls, makeup, homemaking items -chores-cooking, dishes, babysitting,
Gender Socialization • Parents -Transfer values and attitudes regarding how boys and girls should behave -Begins at birth -Well established by 2 ½ yrs. -Learn inappropriate behavior too
Gender Socialization • Schools -Encourage different behaviors in boys/girls -Boys taught to be more assertive -Movement in late 1970’s/early 1980’s to focus more on girls
Gender Socialization • Peers -Reinforce what parents/teachers teach -Teens who closely mirror traditional gender roles are given greatest respect (football player/cheerleader) -More socially acceptable to their peers when act in “acceptable” ways
Gender Socialization • Media -Reflects ideas of society -Programming is sex typed and often male oriented -Advertising embraces traditional gender roles
Theoretical Perspectives • Functionalism –different gender roles and responsibilities have survived because they benefit society • Division of labor between men and women was efficient in early societies • Men were strong & expendable dangerous jobs (hunting, protecting settlements, etc.) • Women were physically weaker and more valuable for reproduction less dangerous jobs (gathering food, weaving, etc.)
Theoretical Perspectives • Conflict Theory – traditional division of labor prevents women from gaining political, economic, and social resources men maintain power • Views traditional gender roles as outdated; physical strength is less important in modern post-industrial societies • Symbolic Interactionism – focuses on process of gender socialization
Gender Inequality • Sexism – beliefs, attitudes, norms, and values used to justify sexual inequality • Occupational Sex Segregation – concentration of women in lower-status positions • 29% of attorneys are women; 86% of paralegals and legal assistants are women (USBLS, 2004) • Income Inequality – U.S. women earn $.72 for every $1 that men earn; only Japan and S. Korea are lower among industrialized nations
Gender Inequality • Legal Inequality – women are not afforded same legal protections as men regarding health care and employment (FMLA) • Political Inequality – women hold very few positions of political power • Governors – 9, Lt. Govs. – 11, House of Reps – 61/465, Senate – 14/100, Supreme Court – 1 (2 all time)
The Gender Puzzle • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XPY28QW4T4E
Topic #2: Gender Development • From 0-3, children have no significant concept of gender. • After that, it becomes a more and more significant part of the self concept that significantly shapes behavior. • What is the root of gender – nature or nurture? • Key study: The David Reimer Case
David Reimer: David Reimer was born a boy in 1965. As a result of his circumcision gone bad, David’s penis was burned off. David’s parents decided to raise him as a girl. Born a Boy, Raised as a Girl
Thomas Beatie was born Tracy LaGondino. As an adult, Beatie underwent testosterone therapy and chest reconstruction surgery, but kept the female genitalia and reproductive organs. Beatie is about to give birth to his third child with his wife Nancy. The Pregnant “Man”
The hijras of South Asia: neither man nor woman. Most are born male, some are born intersex (unidentifiable genitalia). Some see themselves as females. Some see themselves as feminine males. Some see themselves as neither male nor female. In American society, we would say they are transgenders. He, she . . . It? Should there be more than male and female—a third gender . . .?
Intersex • A person whose biological sex cannot be determined as male or female by the appearance of the genitalia
Some people say they are born biologically male or female, but are “trapped” in that body and choose to live as the opposite gender and present themselves to the world as the “other.” Some people do not identify themselves as either exclusively male or female = ambigender or androgynous Do we choose the gender we present to the world? Could society accept “genderless” people? Gender as construction of society http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VwT1kp0C3Ss
Mother Raising Genderless Baby • http://abcnews.go.com/Health/genderless-baby-controversy-mom-defends-choice-reveal-sex/story?id=13718047
Gender and Sexuality • How can gender identification disorder further inform our concept of gender? • Newspaper source: Losing him, Loving her • Podcast: Snap Judgement Episode #109 Plasticity (start 8:05) • Video source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Utpam0IGYac&feature=plcp • What do recent studies show about the roots of sexuality and homosexuality? • Video source: 60 Minutes episode • Complete the film guide as we watch.
The many facets of gender • Gender as a spectrum, not an either/or: • A formula to consider: • “brain”gender + biological gender (genitalia, chromosomes, genes)+Cultural identity (dress / appearance) +Sexual preference = Gender identification • Are 96 possible combinations = “transgender” term, which is non specific.
Topic #3: Gender and the Brain • How does gender impact cognition and learning? • Source: How Boys and Girls Learn • Complete application activity
Ideal Body Type • What stereotypes about body image does the media hold? • Which of these stereotypes are present in the pictures of “ideal body type” that you selected? • Do these stereotypes place any pressure on adolescents? If so, why? If not, why not?
Topic #3: Teen Gender • The Ophelia Effect – Mary Pipher • Read article and answer questions. • Video segment • Takeaway ideas: • The “fake self” • Partly an effect of lookism • Focus on being pleasing to others • Hidden aggression • Require “mind reading”
Parent tips from the book • Parents can create homes that offer girls affection and structure (284). • Parents can help by listening to their daughters (284). • Parents should ask questions and encourage their daughters to think clearly for themselves (284). • Parents should watch for trouble and convey to their daughters that, if it comes, they are strong enough to deal with it. Panicky parents make things worse (285). • Parents should not take things too personally or be too hurt by rejection from adolescent daughters (285). • Good parents model the respect and equality that they want their daughters to experience in the outside world (286). • Parents can help daughters be whole by modeling wholeness (286). • Parents can educate themselves about the complicated world of junior high (287). • Parents can encourage their daughters to have friends of both sexes and to resist sexualizing relationships in junior high (287). • Parents can downplay appearance (288). • Parents can encourage positive peer relations. One of the best things that can happen to a girl is that she have well-adjusted friends (288). • Parents can remind girls that junior high is not all of life. They should be involved in extracurricular activities, such as volunteerism, music, dance, art, family, hobbies, exercise, vacations, etc. (288).
Three Women Lesson • http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/pdf/cultureandobesity/cultureandobesity.pdf • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s2gD80jv5ZQ (Evolution of a model)
Did you know? • Women are often known to overestimate their weight and body size? When asked to select the image that best corresponds to their own body type, most choose an image that is 1-2 sizes higher than their actual body type. What does this mean? Most women perceive their body shape to be larger than they actually are. • Another interesting fact! • What women consider to be beautiful or the ideal shape is significantly smaller than what men consider to be the ideal shape. An experiment was done with the Body Type Scale. The result was that men leaned towards women being in the 5-7 range, whereas the women said that the 2-3 area is the ideal shape for a woman.
What about boys? • Around 2006, books like “Raising Cain” identified a “boy problem” • Symptoms – • underperformance in school • Less recess, more emphasis on sitting, reading, writing • Associate help with weakness • Brains are slower to mature and slower in processing until 18 • 40% are not raised with a dad • Colleges are 60% women
Boys Continued • Recent research says this panic is overstated • Mainly Hispanic and black males • More a function of race and class, not gender • Not so much that boys are doing bad, but girls are closing the gap and sometimes exceeding boys’ performance
Lately, big and bulky has been pushed to the wayside, and the swimmer's physique reigns supreme, editors of men's magazines and websites say. The male silhouette landing on magazine covers and action flicks is tall, lean, agile and fit.
Ideal Male • "As women gain more financial power in society, men are expected to bring more to the table," Addis said. "In addition to being financially successful, they need to be well-groomed, in good shape, emotionally skilled in relationships and the emphasis on looking good is just part of the bigger package -- the stakes have been raised."
Adult Male Development • The early adult transition 17-22 • Bridge between adolescence and adulthood • Leave home, both physically and psychologically with some parental guidance • Entering the adult world 23-27 • Individual is expected to explore relationships and career • However also expected to become responsible member of society • Males struggle with what to do • The age 30 transition 28-30 • Divorce is common • Crucial to future development because of changing directions • Settling down period 33-39 • Making it in the adult world • Have established themselves in society and found occupation • Commits to work, family, leisure, friendship, community, etc. • Midlife transition 40-44 • Self examination • Earlier dreams can’t be met, must make new ones • Can have moderate or severe crisis • Idea of death becomes more real
Adult Female Development • Phase I: Leaving the Family • Same as males except focus is on marriage instead of career • Phase II: Entering the adult world • First marriage age is rising, women focus more on labor force before having children • Women will tend to take time off after children • Phase III: Entering the Adult World Again • Early 30s • Have to again seek occupation • Delay marriage • Delay parenting