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Do Now: Day 1. We will begin studying the ancient empire of Rome. What modern day country is Rome located in? Define “aristocracy”. Define “oligarchy”. Define “democracy”. Define “monarchy”. Define “Council of 500”. . EQ: What is the political legacy of Rome?.

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do now day 1
Do Now: Day 1
  • We will begin studying the ancient empire of Rome. What modern day country is Rome located in?
  • Define “aristocracy”.
  • Define “oligarchy”.
  • Define “democracy”.
  • Define “monarchy”.
  • Define “Council of 500”.
eq what is the political legacy of rome
EQ: What is the political legacy of Rome?

P- Describe the Roman Republic and compare and contrast it with the American Republic.

  • Do Now
  • Prayer/News and Notes
  • Write down EQ and SWBAT
  • PPT- end of Greece, beginning of Rome
  • Compare and Contrast Roman and American Republic “P”
  • Ticket Out/HW
what happened to the ancient greek civilization
What happened to the ancient Greek civilization?
  • Aristotle’s greatest student, Alexander the Great conquered and united Greece.
  • He conquered the middle East.
  • He expanded his empire all the way to India.
  • After fighting for 11 years straight his soldiers wanted to go home.
  • After Alexander died his generals fought amongst each other for power and the greatness of Greece was over.
  • The new powerhouse on the rise was located in what is modern Italy.
how was rome founded
How was Rome founded?
  • Founding Myth: Mars (Ares) had twins with a woman. These boys were predicted to be more powerful than the current king. King drowned them, but they were saved by a wolf and grew up strong and killed the uncle and started Rome. ROMULUS AND REMUS
  • Truth: Founded by men who saw the strategic location of the 7 hills, its close proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, and the fertile soil that Rome offered
  • Founded by a mix of Greeks and Etruscans (Italians from the north of Italy). Eventually Etruscans always ruled.
types of governments
Types of governments



A. Rule by one all powerful king or queen

B. The power is with the people

C. Just a few individuals hold all the power

D. The wealthy upper class holds the power

E. They randomly select 500 ordinary citizens to lead the government

1 Oligarchy

2 Aristocracy

3 Council of 500

4 Democracy

5 Monarchy

do now

Explain why the greatness of the Greek civilization ended and the Roman Republic began. Finish the sentences below. You may use your notes.

The Greek Empire ended when…

After Tarquin the Harsh ruled the people decided…

The myth about how Rome started says…

who was the last king of rome
Who was the Last King of Rome?
  • Tarquin the HARSH was the last king of Rome. (yikes! You have to be cruel to get a nickname like that!)
  • Started his reign by refusing to bury the old king, murdering anyone loyal to him, and making himself head judge of all trials.
  • He tricked rival kings into meeting him and threw them in a pool of water and put stones on them so they would drown.
  • After his rule, the people of Rome decided they would never have a king EVER again and so the Roman Republic was founded.
Rome claimed: We have the best of everything!Claimed a republic has parts of a democracy, oligarchy, an aristocracy, and a monarchy.
  • Consuls:
  • Elected by the assembly
  • Ruled for only 1 YEAR to limit power
  • Chief of government
  • Chief of Army



  • The Senate:
  • Chosen from the aristocrats.
  • Job- to make laws and advise consuls
  • 300 members



  • The Assembly:
  • All citizens of Rome. (but only males are citizens)
  • Grouped according to where they live
  • Vote on consuls
  • Makes laws


the american republic executive branch
The American Republic: Executive Branch



  • 1 ruler
  • Limited to 8 years of power, (Two 4 yr. terms) to prevent dictators
  • The people elect the president
  • Job- runs the government, and is chief of the military
  • Two other branches to keep president in check (Legislative and Judicial)
the american republic legislative branch
The American Republic: Legislative Branch


US Senate and

House of Representatives

  • Chosen from any American citizen, based on the region they are from.
  • Job: make laws and advise the president
  • 100 members in Senate, serves 6 years
  • 435 members in the House, serves 3 years
  • Elected by the people
the roman republic and american republic judicial branch
The Roman Republic and American Republic: Judicial Branch


America: The Constitution

US Constitution- the basic law of the United States

Upheld by 9 judges

Term- For Life

  • 12 Tables- a list of rules that is the basis for the Roman legal system.
  • Upheld by 8 judges
  • Term- 1 year
  • Do Now
  • Prayer/News and Notes
  • Venn Diagram HW- Turn in!
  • Lecture/BBC Video- Why did the Roman Republic End?
  • Ticket Out
  • HW
do now1
Do Now

Before you do the Do Now take out your reading guide so I can pick it up.

Why do you think Rome fell?

eq if the republic is such a good thing why did it end
EQ: If the Republic is such a good thing, why did it end?
  • SWBAT analyze why the republic ended and the empire began.
  • Prayer (thanks for the reminder Scott

Tueres mi otroyo (You are my other self)Si tehagodano a ti (If I hurt you)Me hagodano a mi (I hurt myself)Si teamo y terespeto (If I love and respect you)Me amo y me respetoyo. (I love and respect myself.)


why did the roman republic end
Why did the Roman Republic end?
  • The gaps between the rich and poor grew wider and wider.
  • Small farmers couldn’t compete with the rich who had giant farms
  • Most farmers were ex-soldiers- they couldn’t believe Rome would treat them this way after they fought for these people.
  • Generals in the army began to grow very powerful, they promised these poor farmers land if they joined.
  • Soldiers began to feel more allegiance (loyalty) to generals than the consuls and the Republic.
how did julius caesar end the roman republic
How did Julius Caesar end the Roman Republic?
  • After his year as consul is up, he is not satisfied
  • Appoints himself general of Gaul (now France)
  • His men loved him because he fought alongside them
  • His victories made him popular all over the empire
  • The Senate orders Julius to disband his army and return to Rome
  • In three years he defeated all opposing Roman armies and the Senate appointed him dictator
bbc the end of the roman republic
BBC- The end of the Roman Republic

1. What was Julius’ genius idea when he was outnumbered by the Gauls?

2. What does Julius Caesar mean when he says “Rome does not love her soldiers…she is run by corrupt aristocrats who profess to rule in your name,”? In other words, how does he convince his soldiers to fight with him to take over Rome?

3. What rule did the Senate worry Julius would break? Why would that be dangerous for the Repubilc?

4. What was the founding principal of the Roman Republic that Caesar threatened to violate?

5. Before Caesar’s threats, how long had the Republic lasted?


6. What advantages did Pompey have over Caesar?

How did it end?

Caesar beats Pompey, even though he is outnumbered because of a miscommunication between Pompey’s calvary. He is appointed dictator of Rome and the Roman Republic has come to an end.

ticket out finish this sentence
Ticket Out: Finish this sentence…

The Roman Republic ended because…


1. Take home RESPECT sheet and fill out the “P” for Rome and America.

do now day 2 read pgs 161 162 and answer the following questions
Do Now Day 2: Read pgs. 161-162 and answer the following questions:

Caesar’s Reforms

  • What are some of the reforms made under Caesar?
  • How did Caesar die?

Beginning of the Empire

  • Who took over after Caesar?
  • How did the Second Triumvirate end?
EQ: What was life like in Rome?

SWBAT: Be able to analyze how society was set up in ancient Rome.

  • Do Now
  • Prayer

Tueres mi otroyo (You are my other self)Si tehagodano a ti (If I hurt you)Me hagodano a mi (I hurt myself)Si teamo y terespeto (If I love and respect you)Me amo y me respetoyo. (I love and respect myself.)

  • Social Classes
  • Ticket Out
summarize what was the roman economy like
Summarize: What was the Roman economy like?
  • 90% of economy was based on agriculture. This is how Rome made money and supplied itself.
  • Created coins called a “Denarius”. It could be used anywhere in the Roman Empire- it was a common monetary system.
  • The great road system built by the Romans helped them trade with far off places, like Asia, for things they could not make themselves.
Summarize: What was life like for the Rich? What was life like for the Poor?What was life like for slaves?
ticket out
Ticket Out

What connections between Panem and Rome can you see?

And America?

fact or fiction

Fact or Fiction?

Rome and The Gladiators

SWBAT explain how gladiator games kept peace in the Roman Empire.

Why did ancient Rome have gladiator games?
  • Why was it called the “Bread and Circus”?
  • Who were the gladiators?
  • What kind of fights did they participate in?

5. How did they pair opponents?

6. Where did the fighting styles come from?

7. What did the Romans consider “politically incorrect” when choosing an ethnic fighting style?

the bread and circus
The“Bread and Circus”
  • Slaves = 1/3 of Rome’s population
  • Conditions of poor terrible- unclean, fire was a constant danger
  • Distraction: Emperor suggests “Bread and Circus”
  • Insulting! The implications of a “Bread and Circus” are that the public is values food and entertainment more than their rights
  • To keep the poor happy, they had 150 holidays a year by 250 AD

Bread & Circus: Retail Stores

916 Walnut Street, Newton, MA - (617) 969-1141

who were the gladiators
Who were the gladiators?
  • Despite the Hollywood heroics, gladiators did not usually choose their profession - it chose them. Slaves, prisoners of war and condemned criminals were first in line to be taken up by a lanista, a trainer who would purchase gladiator candidates.
  • Thelanistasells them or rents them out for use in combats staged by wealthy individuals or public officials.
  • Arson, murder, mutiny and bankruptcy were among the acts that could win a sentence of "damnatio ad ludum" or "condemned to the gladiator schools." (As demand for gladiators increased, this judgement became more frequent.) 
what kind of fights did they participate in
What kind of fights did they participate in?
  • Very unusual to pit the same styles of fighter of against each other
  • Originally the different fighting-styles must have evolved from types of combat that the Romans met among the peoples whom they fought and conquered - thraex literally means an inhabitant of Thrace, the inhospitable land bordered on the north by the Danube and on the east by the notorious Black Sea.
  • Subsequently, as the fighting-styles became stereotyped and formalized, a gladiator might be trained in an 'ethnic' style quite different from his actual place of origin.
  • It also became politically incorrect to persist in naming styles after peoples who had by now been comfortably assimilated into the empire, and granted privileged relationships with Rome. Hence by the Augustan period the term murmillo replaced the old term samnis, designating a people south of Rome who had long since been subjugated by the Romans and absorbed into their culture.
  • As the combat between each pair of gladiators reached its climax, the band played to a frenzied crescendo. The combatants (as we know from mosaics, and from surviving skeletons) aimed at the major arteries under the arm and behind the knee, and tried to batter their opponent's skull. The thirst for thrills even resulted in a particular rarity, female gladiators.
  • When the Colosseum opened in 80 AD, it was marked with 100 days of games that featured hundreds of gladiator fights, a ship battle and the slaughter of over an estimated 9,000 animals. 
  • Within a century of the Colosseum's founding, gladiator games were being held nearly continuously throughout the Roman Empire. Untold thousands of animals and humans died in the process. By the time animal combat was abolished in the 6th century, the rush to supply the games had wiped out elephants from North Africa, lions from Mesopotamia, and hippopotamuses from Nubia. 
set up of gladiator fight
Set up of gladiator fight
  • Gladiatorial displays were red-letter days in communities throughout the empire. The whole spectrum of local society was represented, seated strictly according to status.

Part 1: The combatants paraded beforehand, fully armed.

Part 2: Exotic animals might be displayed and hunted in the early part of the program.

Part 3: Prisoners might be executed, by exposure to the beasts.

Part 4/Main Attraction: The actual fight begins

  • Graffiti found in ancient Rome:

Celadus, suspiriumpuellarum = Celadus makes the girls swoon.

clip 1 47
Clip 1: 47
  • Fact or Fiction?

1. Were gladiators obtained in this way?

clip 2 58 23 1 06 30
Clip 2: 58:23-1:06:30
  • 2. Who did not cheer for the emperor on his return?
  • 3. Fact or Fiction: A black stripe indicated a Senator in ancient Rome?
  • 4. Fact or Fiction: Was plague and squalid conditions a problem for the people of Rome?
  • 5. Fact or Fiction: Did women ever have influence on the Senate?
  • 6. Fact or Fiction: They had 150 holidays each year so they could hold gladiator games.
clip 3 1 20 1 24 45
Clip 3: 1:20-1:24:45
  • Fact or Fiction:
  • 7. They would make gladiators pretend to be different armies that Rome had battled and conquered.
  • 8. Fact or Fiction: Women participated in the gladiatorial games.
clip 4 1 29 12 1 33
Clip 4: 1:29:12-1:33
  • Fact or Fiction:

9. The crowd could influence Caesar on whether to kill or spare a life.

  • Fact or Fiction:
  • 10. The thumbs up meant “spare their life”.
clip 5 1 40 1 46
Clip 5: 1:40-1:46
  • Fact or Fiction:
  • 11. They handed out free bread to keep the poor people happy and from rebelling.
ticket out1
Ticket Out
  • Make a list of FIVE FACTS you learned about gladiators.

HW: Finish the “E” and “S” of Rome and America.

do now2
Do Now

Summarize the society in Ancient Rome

  • Do Now
  • Prayer

3. Rome and Religion

  • Ticket Out
eq why is it the roman catholic church
EQ: Why is it the Roman Catholic Church?

SWBAT analyze the cause for the rise and widespread popularity of Christianity.

rome and religion
Rome and Religion
  • Rome, like Mesopotamia and Greece, was polytheistic. They worshipped many gods.
  • They would include the gods of the people they conquered in their own religious practices. So for example, Zeus is known as Jupiter in Roman mythology, Ares is Mars, Poseidon is Neptune, Aphrodite is Venus.

Think Pair Share- Where do we see the legacy of Roman mythology today?

rome and christianity
Rome and Christianity
  • Read from pages 168-172

What made it safe to travel and spread ideas in the Roman empire?

What happened to the Jews after they rebelled?

Why were Christians persecuted in Rome?

Why did Christianity appeal to many?

Who makes Christianity the official religion of Rome?

review of christianity
Review of Christianity
  • Jesus’ followers spread the message across their lands. Which was inside the boundaries of the Roman empire. Paul was especially crucial to the spread of Christianity.
  • The PaxRomana made travel and spread of ideas safe. When the PaxRomana starts to crumble persecution of Christians intensifies.
  • Constantine accepts Christianity after having a vision before battle.
why was it popular
Why was it popular??
  • Embraced all people
  • Gave hope to the powerless
  • Appealed to those who were repelled by the extravagances (luxuries) of Rome.
  • Personal relationship with God
  • Promised eternal life.
think pair share
Think Pair Share

Trace the development of religion from Greece all the way to the acceptance of Christianity.

Ticket Out- Tell me!!!

do now3
Do Now

Make three inferences about the culture of Rome and how that might lead to its collapse.

the last emperor of rome
The last Emperor of Rome
  • Nero the last of the Julio- Claudian (Julius Caesar’s decendants) was obsessed with art and building.
  • It is even rumored he intentionally started the Great Roman Fire to clear land for his DomusAurea
  • He was also a bit mad… as we shall see….

Part 3 (5:08-end)

1. Why was it so scandalous that Nero was an actor?

Part 4 (Beginning to 1:56 and 7:16-end)

2. What did Nero want from the Senate? What is he using it for?

3. What was Nero’s strategy for calming the unrest in Gaul?

Summarizer: Name three signs of Nero’s madness and why these things led to the end of the Roman Empire.

why does rome end
Why does Rome end?
  • Reason 1: Pirates are disrupting trade.
  • Reason 2: Rome spent too much money on building project and wars to expand the empire. They are broke!
  • Reason 3: They exhausted the soil from too much farming causing food shortages and sickness.
  • Reason 4: As they continue to keep pushing the borders of the empire farther, tribes and people outside the boundaries of Rome are attacking . (The Huns, Vandals, Visigoths, Franks, Ostrogoths, Saxons)
  • Reason 5: The generals have so much power that the soldiers are loyal to the general, not to Rome.
  • Reason 6: The gap between the rich and poor continued to grow and grow.
  • Reason 7: Terrible conditions for the poor caused people to feel no loyalty to Rome. They didn’t care anymore about what happened to it.
  • Reason 8: To pay for all of Rome’s debt, they made the poor pay heavy taxes.
ticket out2
Ticket Out
  • How is this story of collapse similar to others we have looked at?
do now4

Directions: On the sheet provided, please use the RESPECT construct to label the different reasons Rome ended. Some might need more than one letter.

  • Do Now
  • Ticket Out
r rome
“R” Rome
  • Christianity becomes popular for many reasons:
  • poor sick of the decadence of Rome2
  • Gave hope to poor
  • Promised a better life in heaven
  • Xstianity embraced ALL people, not just rich

Greek Culture heavily influence Roman- especially religion.

Romans copy Greek gods and change names. Make emperors gods. (Nero was considered a god)

Name two Greek gods and their Roman names.1

e of rome
Rome covered three continents (which 3?) 3, but you could do business anywhere because they had common coinage the denarius. 4


“E” of Rome

90% of Rome’s economy came from FARMING!

Rome had an amazing road system that made trading easy in such a large empire. Roads meant they could trade for anything they could not provide themselves. The first highway ever built was the Appian Way.5

s of rome
“S” of Rome

Lived excessive lifestyles- parrot tongue pie, endless parties 6

Miserable living conditions, high unemployment7

Captured in battles. More than 1/3 of the population was slaves. It was for life. 8

p of rome
After Tarquin the Harsh Romans decide to never have a king again! 9

Julius Caesar ended the Republic.

Explain the battle for Gaul and why men were loyal to him. 12 Killed by friend Brutus. 13 Shakespeare play-“Et tu Brutus?” 14

“P” of Rome

After Tarquin, they decided a Republic was best. It had short terms to limit power. It lasted 500 years.10 Explain set up of the Roman Republic. 11

e of rome1
“E” of Rome
  • Rich males were the only ones with access to education.
c of rome
“C” of Rome

The gap between the rich and poor continued to grow in the Roman Empire. To keep the poor happy and prevent a rebellion, they created gladiator games for their entertainment. The nickname was the Bread and Circus. Explain why it was called the “Bread and Circus”. 15Gladiators were 1.)prisoners of war 2.)criminals and 3.) female volunteers. A thumbs up meant “life”, and thumbs down meant “death”. 16 Explain how fighters were matched. 17 Eventually, Rome had 150 holidays a year to keep the poor from rebelling.18

t of rome
“T” of Rome

The arch and the dome- Romans were amazing architects!

They also invented the aqueduct to

transport water.

do now5
Do Now

In a paragraph make an argument for what you believe is the most influential aspect of Roman society (In other words, what letter is the most important one of the RESPECT).

  • Do Now
  • Prayer

May all beings everywhere plagued

with sufferings of body and mind

quickly be freed from their illnesses.

May those frightened cease to be afraid,

and may those bound be free.

May the powerless find power,

and may people think of befriending

one another.

3. Literacy exercise

4. Begin study guide

5. Ticket Out

eq how do i tell you about rome
EQ: How do I tell you about Rome?

SWBAT: Review Roman society by writing a stellar (fantastic, wonderful, excellent) paragraph consisting of a thesis (claim), evidence, and explanation.

wow you re a good writer step 1
Wow, you’re a good writer!!Step 1

Re-read the paragraph from the Do Now exercise. We are going to edit this paragraph.

Looking at your paragraph think about these questions:

Does it have a thesis?

What evidence do I give to back up (support) my thesis?

Do I explain how my evidence supports my thesis?

Do I use transition words to make my paragraph flow as smoothly as possible?

wow you re a good writer step 2
Wow, you’re a good writerStep 2
  • Re-write your paragraph based on your answers to the previous questions.

* If you feel like you already have all of those ingredients to create a solid paragraph go back and see if you can improve on it by coming up with a 2nd piece of evidence and explanation.

wow you re a good writer step 3
Wow, you’re a good writer!!!Step 3
  • Exchange your paragraph with the person sitting across the room from you.
  • Read their paragraph and answer these questions:

What is their thesis?

What did they use for evidence?

Does their evidence make sense to you?

Why or Why not?

Give the person their paragraph back.

wow you re a good writer step 4 final step yay
Wow, you’re a good writer!!!Step 4 (final step yay!)
  • Looking at your peer reviewed paragraph make any necessary changes.
  • Turn your paragraph in to me for a copy of the Study Guide.
study guide
Study Guide
  • You have in front of you a number of questions which will lead you to all you need to know about Rome (at least for this class ). In other words, if you answer the questions you will know what you need to in order to get 3’s on the standards.

Working either individually (BY YOURSELF) or in pairs (TWO PEOPLE) using your notes ,and the book if need be, you have the rest of the hour to begin completing the Study Guide for the test on Friday.

do now6
Do Now

In your opinion, what is the most interesting aspect (part) of ancient Rome?

  • Do Now
  • Prayer

Hold on to what is good,even if it's a handful of earth. Hold on to what you believe,Even if it's a tree that stands by itself. Hold on to what you must do, Even if it's a long way from here. Hold on to your life, Even if it's easier to let go. Hold on to my hand, Even if I've gone away from you.

3. Review

eq what do i know about rome
EQ: What do I know about Rome?
  • SWBAT: Accurately review information meeting the standards for Rome.
first half of class
First Half of Class….
  • You will work BY YOURSELF quietly on the study guide.
second half
Second Half
  • We will review using the ActivInspire
  • YAY!!
strategy example according to legend rome began
(Strategy example)According to LEGEND Rome began…
  • When Christopher Columbus discovered it and called it the New World
  • Mars (Ares) had twins who were rescued by wolves that grew up to found Rome
  • Some travelers pitched tents there and it just became a city
  • It was always a city and Caesar just renamed it Rome
oligarchy is defined as
Oligarchy is defined as
  • A political system where power is held by the citizens
  • A political system where power is held by one supreme ruler
  • A political system where power is held by a small group of people
  • A political system where power is passed on to your heirs.
if you lived in a monarchy you are ruled by
If you lived in a monarchy you are ruled by….
  • A Senate
  • A President
  • A king
  • A combination of a emperor and a senate
who was the last king of rome1
Who was the last king of Rome
  • Julius Caesar
  • Tarquin the Harsh
  • Nero
  • Constantine

4.0) raise your hand to answer: What did he do to the rival kings?

all of the following are reasons the roman republic fell except
All of the following are reasons the Roman republic fell except
  • Gap between the rich and the poor grew too wide
  • Small farmers were being forced out by the rich with enormous farms
  • Peasants were more loyal to the generals than to the elected officials or Rome.
  • Farming became very difficult and people were starving to death
france was known as
France was known as…
  • Moors
  • Persia
  • Gaul
  • Ottoman Empire
et tu brute were the last words of
Et tu, Brute? Were the last words of…
  • Nero before he was executed
  • Julius Caesar after being stabbed by his best friend
  • Pompey as Caesar executed him for betrayal
  • Constantine before he made Christianity the official religion of Rome
what is the best thesis statement
What is the best thesis statement…
  • I believe World history is the best class because it has awesome posters.
  • World history is the worst class because its too hard. Also because Mr. Williams-Virden is mean. Also because he makes us read too much.
  • World history has some of the qualities of a good class.
  • The best class in my high school career is Mr. Williams-Virden World History class because he challenges us, keeps us motivated, and is all around awesome.
which of the following are ways hunger games connects to rome
Which of the following are ways Hunger Games connects to Rome
  • Katniss represents Julius Caesar and his rebellious attitude
  • The country of Panem is latin for bread
  • The Hunger Games are similar to the bread and circus and gladiator games
  • The social classes and the rich having all the luxuries is similar to how society was set up in Rome
what were the three social classes in rome
What were the three social classes in Rome
  • Workers, Peasants, Warriors
  • Nobles, Philosophers, Wealthy
  • Rich, Poor, Slaves
  • Priests, Farmers, Slaves
90 of rome s economy was
90% of Rome’s economy was
  • Fishing
  • Trade
  • War
  • Farming

4.0- How does that compare to Greece?

life as a poor person in rome consisted of all of the following except
Life as a poor person in Rome consisted of all of the following except:
  • Living under the constant threat of fire
  • Farming to feed your family
  • Living in large apartment buildings
  • Living off of rations of grains from the government