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The Future of Libraries

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  1. Marshall Breeding Independent Consult, Author, Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides www.librarytechnology.org/ twitter.com/mbreeding The Future of Libraries The Future of Libraries:New Technologies, New Models and Strategic Transition New Technologies, New Models, and Strategic Transition Conference on Chinese Academic Library Technology & Development 2012 18 Dec 2012

  2. Summary • Cloud computing in Libraries: trends related to the adoption of cloud computing technologies for library management and discovery products.

  3. Summary • Cloud computing is one of the most important technology trends of the times. The phase of client/server computing is fading into obsolescence, replaced by entirely web-based systems, increasingly deployed through SaaS. Libraries and other technology-oriented organizations now have options through infrastructure-as-a-service offerings such as Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud and Simple Storage Service to ramp up computing capabilities quickly, enjoy free access for smaller projects, and take advantage of usage- based subscription models for larger-scale production projects. Breeding expands on these topics and provides a basic explanation of cloud computing that focuses on real advantages and disadvantages for libraries.

  4. Agenda • 9:00-10:00 Section 1 • Global Trends in Information Technology in Libraries • 13:30-15:00 Section 2 • Trends in Library Automation Software implementation • 15:10-16:40 Section 3 • Global business arena, Questions and Discussion

  5. Global Trends in Information Technology in Libraries Cloud Computing Web-based systems Mobile Evolution of Legacy systems Expanding scope of library mission: electronic resource management, Creating and curating digital collections, Digital preservation 9:00-10:00  Section 1

  6. Redefining Libraries Future Service and Development Models

  7. AppropriateAutomation Infrastructure • Current automation products out of step with current realities • Majority of library collection funds spent on electronic content • Majority of automation efforts support print activities • Management of e-content continues with inadequate supporting infrastructure • New discovery solutions help with access to e-content • Library users expect more engaging socially aware interfaces for Web and mobile

  8. Key Context: Libraries in Transition • Academic Shift from Print > Electronic • E-journal transition largely complete • Circulation of print collections slowing • E-books now in play (consultation > reading) • Public: Emphasis on Patron Engagement • Increased pressure on physical facilities • Increased circulation of print collections • Dramatic increase in interest in e-books • All libraries: • Need better tools for access to complex multi-format collections • Strong emphasis on digitizing local collections • Demands for enterprise integration and interoperability

  9. Key Context: Technologies in transition • Client / Server > Web-based computing • Natively social computing • Integration of social computing into core infrastructure • Local computing shifting to cloud platforms • Application Service Provider offerings standard • New expectations for multi-tenant software-as-a-service • Full spectrum of devices • full-scale / net book / tablet / mobile • Mobile the current focus, but is only one example of device and interface cycles

  10. Key Context: Changed expectations in metadata management • Moving away from individual record-by-record creation • Life cycle of metadata • Metadata follows the supply chain, improved and enhanced along the way as needed • Manage metadata in bulk when possible • E-book collections • Highly shared metadata • E-journal knowledge bases (KnowledgeWorks / 360 Core) • Great interest in moving toward semantic web and open linked data • Very little progress in linked data for operational systems • AACR2 > RDA • MARC > RDF: Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative • http://www.loc.gov/marc/transition/

  11. Key Context: Research Data • Academic libraries have increased library involvement with research data • Facilitate data management plans for research projects • Lend Library expertise to organization and management • Preservation

  12. Surging Interest in the Semantic Web • Open Linked Data • Bibliographic data sets released through Creative Commons Public Domain License (CC0) • Europeana, Harvard, etc. • Databases that natively manage RDF triple stores • Currently at Early stages of introducing semantic technologies in discovery • Relational databases continue to power business systems

  13. Each Library Type Distinctive • Academic – Public – School – Special • Academic: Emphasis on subscribed electronic resources • Public: Engaged in the management of print collections • Dramatic increase in interest in E-books • School: Age-appropriate resources (print and Web), textbook and media management • Special: Enterprise knowledge management (Corporate, Law, Medical, etc)

  14. Cooperation and Resource sharing • Efforts on many fronts to cooperate and consolidate • Many regional consortia merging (Example: suburban Chicago systems) • State-wide or national implementations • Software-as-a-service or “cloud” based implementations • Many libraries share computing infrastructure and data resources

  15. Cloud Computing and Services

  16. Cloud Computing for Libraries Book Image Publication Info: • Volume 11 in The Tech Set • Published by Neal-Schuman / ALA TechSource • ISBN: 781555707859 • http://www.neal-schuman.com/ccl

  17. Cloud computing as marketing term • Cloud computing used very freely, tagged to almost any virtualized environment • Any arrangement where the library relies on some kind of remote hosting environment for major automation components • Includes almost any vendor-hosted product offering

  18. Cloud computing – characteristics • Web-based Interfaces • Externally hosted • Pricing: subscription or utility • Highly abstracted computing model • Provisioned on demand • Scaled according to variable needs • Elastic – consumption of resources can contract and expand according to demand

  19. Fundamental technology shift • Mainframe computing • Client/Server • Cloud Computing http://www.flickr.com/photos/carrick/61952845/ http://soacloudcomputing.blogspot.com/2008/10/cloud-computing.html http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-10-2001/jw-1019-jxta.html

  20. Local Computing • Traditional model • Locally owned and managed • Shifting from departmental to enterprise • Departmental servers co-located in central IT data centers • Increasingly virtualized

  21. Gartner Hype Cycle 2009

  22. Gartner Hype Cycle 2010

  23. Gartner Hype Cycle 2011

  24. Gartner Hype Cycle 2012

  25. Cloud computing layers

  26. Infrastructure-as-a-service • Provisioning of Equipment • Servers, storage • Virtual server provisioning • Examples: • Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) • Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) • Rackspace Cloud www.rackspacecloud.com/) • EMC2 Atmos (www.atmosonline.com/)

  27. Software-as-a-Service • Complete software application, customized for customer use • Software delivered through cloud infrastructure, data stored on cloud • Eg: Salesforce.com—widely used business infrastructure • Multi-tenant: all organizations that use the service share the same instance (codebase, hardware resources, etc) • Often partitioned to separate some groups of subscribers

  28. Types of SaaS http://www.samanage.com/blog/2011/08/not-all-saas-offerings-are-created-equal/

  29. Application service provider • Legacy business applications hosted by software vendor • Standalone application on discrete or virtualized hardware • Staff and public clients accessed via the Internet • Same user interfaces and functionality as if installed locally • Established as a deployment model in the 1990’s • Can be implemented through Infrastructure-as-a Service • Individual instances of legacy system hosted in EC2

  30. ASP vs SaaS From: THINKstrategies: CIO’s Guide to Software-as-a-Service

  31. Private vs Public http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cloud_computing_types.svg

  32. Storage-as-a-Service • Provisioned, on-demand storage • Bundled to, or separate from other cloud services • Examples: • Enterprise: Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) • Consumer: Dropbox

  33. General opportunity to move away from library-by-library metadata management to globally shared workflows Shared knowledge bases E-resource holdings Bibliographic services Linked data applications Key Issues Data ownership Creative commons license Data portability across competing providers Data as a service

  34. Cloud computing trends for libraries • Increased migration away from local computing toward some form of remote / hosted / virtualized alternative • Cloud computing especially attractive to libraries with few technology support personnel • Adequate bandwidth will continue to be a limiting factor

  35. Data in the cloud • Storage as a service • Informal / small-scale • Dropbox (2GB+) • Microsoft Skydrive (7GB+) • Mostly used as supplemental storage and for sharing • Institutional / Larger-scale • Local storage still dominant • When using cloud storage for institutional data • Multiple tiers of backup with SLA • DuraCloud, S3, many others

  36. Platform-as-a-Platform as a Service • Virtualized computing environment for deployment of software • Application engine, no specific server provisioning • Examples: • Google App Engine • SDKs for Java, Python • Heroku: ruby platform • Amazon Web Service • Library Specific platforms

  37. Library automation through SaaS • Almost all library automation products offered through hosted options • SaaS or ASP?

  38. SaaS provides opportunity for highly shared data models General opportunity to move away from library-by-library metadata management to globally shared workflows Data as a service

  39. Caveats and concerns with SaaS • Libraries must have adequate bandwidth to support access to remote applications without latency • Quality of service agreements that guarantee performance and reliability factors • Configurability and customizability limitations • Access to API’s • Ability to interoperate with 3rd party applications • Eg: Connect SaaS ILS with discovery product from another vendor

  40. Maintain institutional branding • Using cloud computing does not mean giving up your identity • Be sure that your services delivered through your own URL • Most cloud services support domain aliases • Accomplished through DNS configuration • Implemented by your network administrator • Create CNAME entry to redirect cloud service to a subdomain associated with your library: • S3.mylibrary.org = s3.amazonaws.com.

  41. Cost implications • Total cost of ownership • Do all cost components result in increased or decreased expense • Personnel costs – need less technical administration • Hardware – server hardware eliminated • Software costs: subscription, license, maintenance/support • Indirect costs: energy costs associated with power and cooling of servers in data center • IaaS: balance elimination of hardware investments for ongoing usage fees • Especially attractive for development and prototyping

  42. Personnel Distribution Local Computing Cloud Computing • Server Administration • Application maintenance • Staff client software updates • Operational tasks • Application configuration or profiling • Operational tasks

  43. Budget Allocations Local Computing Cloud Computing • Server Purchase • Server Maintenance • Application software license • Data Center overhead • Energy costs • Facility costs • Annual Subscription • Measured Service? • Fixed fees • Factors • Hosting • Software Licenses • Optional modules

  44. Benefits of Cloud Computing Libraries Providers / Vendors • Elimination of capital expenses for equipment • Lower annual costs • Redeployment of technical staff to more meaningful activities • Higher revenues relative to software-only arrangements • Provision of infrastructure at scale with lower unit costs • Longer-term relationships with customers

  45. Risks and concerns • Privacy of data • Policies, regulations, jurisdictions • Ownership of data • Avoid vendor lock-in • Integrity of Data • Backups and disaster recovery • Opportunities for increased redundancy

  46. Security issues • Most providers implement stronger safeguards beyond the capacity of local institutions • Virtual instances equally susceptible to poor security practices as local computing

  47. Cloud computing trends for libraries • Increased migration away from local computing toward some form of remote / hosted / virtualized alternative • Cloud computing especially attractive to libraries with few technology support personnel • Adequate bandwidth will continue to be a limiting factor

  48. Relevant trends • No technical limitations on scalability of infrastructure • General move toward ever larger implementations of automation infrastructure • National infrastructure (beginning with smaller countries) • US: Statewide and regional projects

  49. Resource sharing opportunities • Larger instances of automation systems or participation in multi-tenant services provide inherent resource sharing capabilities • Ever larger repositories of metadata • Simpler mechanisms for patron requests of items not in local collections

  50. Mobile Computing