central question why do quasars evolve
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Quasar & Black Hole Science for GSMT

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Central question: Why do quasars evolve?. Quasar & Black Hole Science for GSMT. BACKGROUND. (1) 2DF, SLOAN, 2Mass, First and other surveys are revealing an ever more complete census of the quasar population from z=0 to 7. Background (continued).

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(1) 2DF, SLOAN, 2Mass, First and other surveys

are revealing an ever more complete census of the

quasar population from z=0 to 7.

background continued
Background (continued)

The peak of quasar activity was at z~2, when the Universe was only 30% of its present age.

background continued1
BACKGROUND (continued)

Reionization of intergalactic hydrogen happened at z= 6.5-7.0

Background (continued)

A detailed picture of the central engine has been developed

  • Black hole and accretion disk paradigm
  • Mostly inferred from spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry of spatially unresolved sources, in the X-ray, UV, optical, IR and radio.
  • Advances in numerical methods and theory
background continued2
Background (continued)

Black holes have been linked to the stellar/baryonic/CDM components of galaxies

  • M(BH) -- s(bulge) correlation has been found out to the Virgo cluster
background continued3
Background (continued)

Feedback to the IGM via UV radiation and shock energy is probably also important

background continued4
Background (continued)

The quasar phenomenon and the evolution of the quasar luminosity function is thus placed into the context of the evolution of galaxies and large scale structure

key measurements for quasar science
Key Measurements for Quasar Science

(1) Direct imaging of central engines of quasars

(2) Extend kinematic measurements of black hole masses to cosmological distances

(3) Study quasar host galaxies

(4) Deep quasar surveys

  • What is the Seyfert galaxy population at z=7
  • What is the relationship of AGN to protogalaxies and the IGM, for z=2 - 7

GSMT will enable (2) – (4)

synergy with alma jwst and con x
Synergy with Alma, JWST and Con-X
  • Con-X will probe physics of the central supermassive black hole, studying general relativisitic effects in the plasma nearest the black hole
  • Alma will probe molecular gas structures in the central engine and trace how black holes are “fed” with gas
  • JWST will image dust in the cores of galaxies which is heated by the quasar accretion.
  • GSMT will enable high resolution spectroscopy of quasars and their host galaxies, crucial for understanding all these observations, and putting them in the broader context of galaxy formation.
Quasar Structures
  • Accretion disk: 10^14 – 10^16 cm
  • Broad Line Region 10 light days for Seyferts  1 light year for quasars
  • Torus: 10-50 pc (???)
  • Narrow Line Region: 100 pc to 500 pc
  • Extended gas & dust disk: 200pc to 1 kpc
  • Host Galaxy: 10 kpc+


Narrow Line Region

And Extended Narrow Line Region

Host Galaxy


Broad line region

Accretion disk