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Inspection and audit of air conditioning facilities
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  1. Inspection and audit of air conditioning facilities

  2. AuditAC “Field benchmarking and Market development for Audit methods in Air Conditioning” Is a project: The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not represent the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein AuditAC web site: http://www.eva.ac.at/projekte/auditac.htm AuditAC training package

  3. AuditAC participants: AustriaAustrian Energy Agency France (Project coordinator)Armines - Mines de Paris SloveniaUniversity of Ljubljana UKAssociation of Building Engineers BelgiumUniversité de Liège ItalyPolitecnico di Torino BRE (Building Research Establishment Ltd) PortugalUniversity of Porto Welsh School of Architecture Eurovent-Certification AuditAC training package

  4. What is air conditioning audit for? • Detect the source of degradation of the performance (the system doesn’t stop operating but use more energy and/or is not able to guarantee the comfort) 2) Find profitable improvements in money and energy savings. AuditAC training package

  5. General Structure Session 1: Air conditioning systems Session 2: TheInspection of the air conditioning systems Session 3: Definitions for air conditioning facilities audit and benchmarking Session 4: Energy conservation opportunities for an air conditioning plant AuditAC training package

  6. Session1Air conditioning systems

  7. Air conditioning systems • Air conditioning fundamentals and classification • A simple method for air conditioning recognition • The air conditioning market in Europe: facts and figures AuditAC training package

  8. Basic function and components Expansion valve Heat to outside Cooling to inside Compressor Condenser Evaporator Energy for compression A system based on vapour compression cools a fluid vector (refrigerant, air or water) in order to cool a building or a zone of a building transferring the heat extracted from the inside to the outside, spending work of compression AuditAC training package

  9. Different levels of air conditioning Partial Cooling, which is obtained with air conditioning equipment that provides partial control of the temperature and none of moisture. For instance, the rooms are cooled, but the fresh air is introduced without having been cooled and dried.In such cases also, the installed cooling capacity of the AC system may be insufficient for all circumstances, as a result the internal air cannot be kept at a constant temperature. Total Cooling, wherein the AC system provides full temperature control and includes the provision of the minimum rate of ventilation air changes required for hygienic purposes at an adequate temperature. This type of equipment allows a degree of dehumidification consequent to the cooling effect– it is a very frequent level of comfort today. Total Air Conditioning, which includes full control of temperature and humidity as well as provision of the minimum ventilation rate required for hygienic purposes but is not capable of attaining air purity conditions for specific IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) levels. Advanced Air Conditioning, same as TAC but with a full control of IAQ. These systems are particularly applied in hospitals or clean rooms in the electronic industry. AuditAC training package

  10. Different levels of air conditioning • Air conditioning can also: • Provide heating: reversible systems can supply cooling and heating respectively in winter and summer or for some system type cooling an dheating at the same time to different zones • Provide controlled ventilation: the ventilation is integrated and the system introduce the fresh air and treat it, heat and cool recovering from the extracted air can be possible. A large variety of system and technologies exist with different possibilities AuditAC training package

  11. General classification

  12. LOCAL OR CENTRAL ? LOCAL CENTRAL ROOM BY ROOM SERIES OF ROOMS BUILDING Other R A C PACKAGE CAC Roof top FLUID: AIR ONLY FLUID: AIR AND WATER FLUID: REFRIGERANT WLHP A.H.U.s and INDUCTION FAN - COIL DUCTWOR K UNITS UN ITS 4 pipes 3 pipes 2 pipes Displacement Mixing Chilled MULTI - V R F CAV ceiling SPLIT VAV AuditAC training package

  13. Boilers Compression or absorption Chillers Air or water cooled condenser Primary System Dry/wet, with/without direct contact cooling towers Condenser heat recovery Stratified or ice cold storage Solar energy AuditAC training package

  14. Single duct system (including multi-zone) Dual duct system Single duct, terminal reheat All –air systems 2-pipe Constant volume (with separate heating) Fan coil system 3- pipe 4- pipe Variable Air Volume (with separate heating) Two pipe ceiling system change over (includes passive beams) Water-based systems Four-pipe ceiling system Embedded systems Air handling unit Room unit & Single duct ventilation 2-pipe non change over Active beam ceiling system Direct expansion (DX) single split system 2-pipe change over Induction system DX systems 3- pipe Direct expansion (DX) multi split system 4- pipe Water loop heat pump VRF HVAC System Overview AuditAC training package

  15. Cooling tower AHU with heat recovery All air system with mixing box Fan Coils Units Chilled beams system Split system Boilers Water cooled Chillers Different air conditioning components and systems in an office building AuditAC training package

  16. Systems descriptionPackaged unitsSplit systems and variable refrigerant flow ChillersWater loop heat pump Cooling towersMechanical ventilation and air handling units

  17. Packaged units

  18. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Zone equipped with a mobile packaged unit AuditAC training package

  19. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Zone equipped with a window unit AuditAC training package

  20. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Air cooled packaged system Conditioned air Building with grilles Vivitiated air Air cooled packaged unit Air condenser integrated (A) or not (B) AuditAC training package

  21. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Water cooled packaged system (water from network or natural source) Conditioned air Network (G) or natural source (F) Building with grilles Vivitiated air Water cooled packaged unit AuditAC training package

  22. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Water cooled packaged system (with cooling tower) Building with grilles Water cooled packaged unit Vivitiated air AuditAC training package

  23. Rooftop: sourcewww.trane.com Packaged unit: source www.liebert-hiross.com AuditAC training package

  24. Split systems and variable refrigerant fluid (VRF)

  25. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Zone equipped with a split unit AuditAC training package

  26. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Zone equipped with a multi-split unit Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower AuditAC training package

  27. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Zone equipped with a variable refrigerant flow system Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower AuditAC training package

  28. Split system example: source www.airwell.com AuditAC training package

  29. Chillers

  30. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Air cooled chiller with fan coil units (FCU) FCU Air cooled chiller Air condenser integrated (A) or not (B) Building AuditAC training package

  31. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Air cooled chiller with air handling unit (AHU) AHU Building with grilles Air cooled chiller Air condenser Vitiated air AuditAC training package

  32. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Chilled ceiling Building Air cooled chiller Air cooled chiller with chilled ceiling Air condenser AuditAC training package

  33. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Air cooled chiller with passive beams Passive beams Building Air condenser Air cooled chiller AuditAC training package

  34. Air cooled chiller with active beams LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Fresh air from an AHU Active beams Air condenser Air cooled chiller Building AuditAC training package

  35. Screw air cooled chiller, courtesy of Carrier AuditAC training package

  36. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Water cooled chiller with fan coil units (FCU) (water from network or natural source) Building Network (G) or natural source (F) Water cooled chiller FCU AuditAC training package

  37. Screw chiller water-cooled (source: www.carrier.com) AuditAC training package

  38. Water cooled chiller with air handling unit AHU (water from network or natural source) LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower AHU Network (G) or natural source (F) Building with grilles Water cooled chiller Vivitiated air AuditAC training package

  39. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Water cooled chiller with air handling unit AHU (with cooling tower) Building Water cooled chiller FCU AuditAC training package

  40. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Water cooled chiller with air handling unit AHU (with cooling tower) AHU Building with grilles Water cooled chiller Vivitiated air AuditAC training package

  41. Water loop heat pump

  42. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Water loop heat pumps Cooler (cooling system, cooling tower…) Water loop Heater (heat exchanger, boiler…) AuditAC training package

  43. The cooling towers

  44. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Water cooled air-conditioning system Air/water heat exchanger Dry cooling tower AuditAC training package

  45. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Droplet filter Water cooled air-conditioning system Spray Heat exchanger Collection basin Wet cooling tower AuditAC training package

  46. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant Expansion valve Fan Compressor Condenser Evaporator Cooling tower Droplet filter Water cooled air-conditioning system Spray Heat exchanger Collection basin Wet/Dry cooling tower AuditAC training package

  47. Cooling tower: source www.arctichill.com AuditAC training package

  48. The mechanical ventilation and the air handling units (AHU)

  49. LEGEND Water Air Refrigerant valve Fan Pump Command Damper Filter Ventilation system with CO2 detector without cooling Filter Outdoor intake Supply air Extract air Exhaust to outdoor CO2 sensor AuditAC training package

  50. LEGEND Water Air T Sensor valve Fan Pump Command Damper Filter Air Handling Unit – Constant Air Volume Water from chiller Outdoor intake T Mixing box Supply air Exhaust to outdoor Extract air AuditAC training package