Eveline’s Passive Posture 35 • In contrast, the evening has invaded the avenue…used as a metaphor • Paralysis: a theme in Dubliners, a collection of short stories by James Joyce published in 1914 • Physical dimension vs. spiritual dimension • The word paralysis appears in “The Sisters,” the first story in Dubliners.
Belfast 35 • Largely a ‘Protestant city in the north; • Symbolic of commercial aggressiveness and ‘philistine ‘bumptiousness • ‘philistine: a person who is lacking in or hostile or smugly indifferent to cultural values, intellectual pursuits, aesthetic refinement, etc., or is contentedly commonplace in ideas and tastes. • Bumptious: offensively self-assertive: a bumptious young upstart.
The Protestant Reformation • The Protestant Reformation, also called the Protestant Revolt or simply The Reformation, was the European Christian reform movement that established Protestantism as a constituent branch of contemporary Christianity. It began in 1517 when Martin Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses.
Martin Luther(10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) • a German priest and professor of theology who initiated the Protestant Reformation. • Strongly disputing the claim that freedom from God's punishment of sin could be purchased with money, he confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517.
Pathways to salvationMerit vs. grace • Luther taught that salvation is not earned by good deeds but received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus as redeemer from sin. His theology challenged the authority of the pope of the Roman Catholic Church by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge;and opposed sacerdotalism by considering all baptized Christians to be a holy priesthood—democracy?
Close Reading 35 • His father was not so bad then. • Not so bad means not too good • Then vs. now • What is the root reason for Eveline’s pains? • Father’s character flaw • Mother’s death--illness
Anadiplosis 36for smooth transition • …to leave her home. 35 • Home! (36) • Anadiplosis (pronounced /ænədɨˈploʊsɨs/, AN-ə-di-PLOH-sis; from the Greek: ἀναδίπλωσις, anadíplōsis, "a doubling, folding up") is the repetition of the last word of a preceding clause. The word is used at the end of a sentence and then used again at the beginning of the next sentence.
Broken har’monium 36pun on “broken harmony” • Broken harmony in the house • an organlike keyboard instrument with small metal reeds and a pair of bellows operated by the player's feet.
Keeping promise 36Warrant in an argument • Underlying the claims in are warrants, the inferences or assumptions that are taken for granted by the writer (and sometimes by the argument). Warrants connect (conspicuously or inconspicuously) the claim and the support (evidence); they derive from our cultural experiences and personal observations. • Super-Ego: Freudian concept • Moral police • In stiff/dogmatic practice, super-ego could be suppressive since it won’t take into account the conext;
Margaret Mary Alacoque 36Saint Margaret Mary Ala’coque(22 July 1647 – 17 October 1690) • a French Roman Catholic nun and mystic, who promoted devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus in its modern form. • Be’atified and canonized
Melbourne 36 • a seaport in and the capital of Victoria, in SE Australia. • The Irish migrated in vast numbers from 1854 to World War I. • The Irish famine of the 1840s caused large numbers of people to migrate due to poverty and difficult living conditions.
Double Negative/Litotes 37Rhetorical Device • A double negative occurs when two forms of negation are used in the same clause. • Thus they cancel one another and produce an affirmative sense; • Doubled negatives can actually intensify the negation. The rhetorical term for this effect, when it leads to an understated affirmation, is ‘litotes.
Litotes • Litotes is a form of understatement, always deliberate and with the intention of emphasis. • An understatement, esp. that in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of its contrary, as in “not bad at all.” • ``She was not a little upset'' for ``She was extremely upset.''
The Bohemian Girl 37 • The Bohemian Girl is an opera composed by Michael William Balfe with a li’bretto by Alfred Bunn. The plot is loosely based on a Cervantes (29 September 1547 – 23 April 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. tale, La Gitanilla.
Bohemian 37Bohemia (green) in relation to the current regions of the Czech Republic • –noun • 1. a native or inhabitant of Bohemia. • 2. ( usually lowercase ) a person, as an artist or writer, who lives and acts free of regard for conventional rules and practices.
The Strait of Ma’gellan 37 • The Strait of Magellan comprises a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland South America and north of Tierra del Fuego. The waterway is the most important natural passage between the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans, but it is considered a difficult route to navigate because of the unpredictable winds and currents and the narrowness of the passage.
Fallacies (Chapter 13 in FM) • I know these sailor chaps… (37) • Review fallacy types (Frames of Mind, 619 – 621) • Failed to take into account of an exception • Treat Frank as a type, not as an individual • Cookie-cutting style
Significant RepetitionThematic Emphasis 38 • Her promise to her dying mother • Moral weight • Religious dimension
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)by Max Halberstadt, 1921 • founded the psychoanalytic school of psychiatry, • best known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the defense mechanism of repression,
Pre-Freudian Age • In his later work, Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into three parts: Id, ego, and super-ego. Freud discussed this model in the 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle, and fully elaborated upon it in The Ego and the Id (1923), in which he developed it as an alternative to his previous topographic schema (i.e., conscious, unconscious, and preconscious).
The super-egoMoral Police, dogmatic practiceparalysis in James Joyce’s Term • The super-ego is the moral component of the psyche, which takes into account no special circumstances in which the morally right thing may not be right for a given situation. • The theory of ego defense mechanisms has received empirical validation, and the nature of repression, in particular, became one of the more fiercely debated areas of psychology in the 1990s.
Fallacy 38 • Damned Italians! Come over here! • Review the list of fallacies (Fames of Mind, 619 to 621)
Eveline’s Dilemma: Trapped or Trashed? • Metaphor: trapped/trashed • Alliteration: repetition of a particular sound in the first syllables of a series of words and/or phrases. • Claim: Though Eveline, the title character in James Joyce’ short story published in 1914, has a job, food, shelter, and folks whom she knows very well, the harsh fact remains that she has been trapped at home in more than one way.
Eveline should leave • Evidence: Low-paying job, a hard life, an abusive father, etc., (Climactic Order/chronological/Linked—one thing leads to another/parallel structure) • Warrant: an unhappy life is not worth living/everybody is entitled to happiness; [had her mother known her miserable situation, even her dead mother would encourage her to get out of this trap—because] a mother would like to have all the best for her children;
More Warrant • Evidence: By staying home with her father, Eveline’s personal safety is called into question since her father has become more and more abusive. • Warrant: All children are entitled to safety and security, especially for a young woman • ironically unsafe at home! (against readers’ assumption/general principle)
Take a step back/Make a concession/then turn back to your own argument • Granted/Of course/admittedly… • One should keep one’s promise; • However, things are different now. Her father has becoming more and more abusive… • Therefore/All things considered… • Eveline should leave for a new life…
Counterargument • Though it seems exciting to start a new life, there is no guarantee Frank’s love for her would last; she might be trashed since she is unskilled, far away from her home country; • Warrant: out of security concern, especially for a young woman in a foreign country;
Eveline should stay • Warrant: One should keep his or her promise, especially to a dying person; • It is her duty to keep her family together;
Monologue vs. DialogueMichael DiYanni’s Example4 to 6 sources (primary/secondary) • One voice • One perspective • One point of view • Intellectual blind spot • Partiality • Biased • Subjective • More interesting if another perspective is integrated into your argument • Ethos: character of the author (rhetorical effect) • Scholars’ responsibilities • Objectivity