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Physical vs Chemical Changes • Physical changes – end products can be changed back to what you started with • Ex: water changes to ice (can change back) • Chemical changes – end up with an entirely new product at the end • Example : iron & water = rust (can’t change back)
Baking Soda • Chemical change • Baking soda, or bicarbonate of soda • Used when the dough or batter contains an acidic ingredient, like buttermilk, lemon, brown sugar, sour cream, or yogurt. • The soda (base) combines with the buttermilk (acid), to produce carbon dioxide & the baked goods rise.
Baking Powder • Chemical change • Used in cookies, quick breads & other baked goods • Made of baking soda & cream of tartar • Generally double action - means it releases carbon dioxide when mixed with liquid & when exposed to heat
Yeast • Chemical change • Fungus • Slow process • Converts small amounts of sugars in the dough to carbon dioxide & alcohol – fermentation • Carbon dioxide trapped in the dough makes it rise • Alcohol evaporates in the oven
Steam • Physical change • Water changes to steam to create small bubbles which cause the baking products to rise
Making Pancakes • Leavening agents – baking soda & baking powder • Buttermilk vs regular milk pancakes • Which will work the best? • And in what combinations do they work best? • Let’s find out!