Good governance for Environmental Management (GGEM). Dr Abdelrahman Tamimi. Objectives of this presentation. To address the following What is governance? What is good governance? What is EM governance? What is local governance for EM What are the key elements of a service?
Good governance for Environmental Management (GGEM) Dr Abdelrahman Tamimi
Objectives of this presentation To address the following • What is governance? • What is good governance? • What is EM governance? • What is local governance for EM • What are the key elements of a service? • How is good governance put into practice for EM
Definition of governance There are many definitions of governance • Some place more emphasis on the role of government • Others focus on the interaction between different role players and the need for co-operation • Most definitions refer to decision making and how this takes place in relation to public goods and services • Most recognize that governance is much more than government
What is governance? • Governance is about the processes by which decisions are made and implemented • It is the result of interactions, relationships and networks between the different sectors (government, public sector, private sector and civil society) to ensure optimal services • It involves decisions, negotiation, and different power relations between stakeholders to determine who gets what, when and how.
Governance stakeholders • Governance involves more than government - many stakeholders are involved • All those with a legitimate interest in the outcome of a decision-making process have a right to be involved • Stakeholders include communities, governmental organisations such as municipalities, utilities and other state owned entities, as well as service providers, capacity building organisations, NGOs, contributors of finance, the users of services and organisations that support them.
Systems of governance • Systems of governance range from centralised, top down approaches to those that are more decentralised and participatory • Increasingly EM services are being decentralised • Good governance for EM services will therefore require participatory approaches that are shaped by stakeholders and their relationships at the local level
What is good governance? • Good governance involves constructive co-operation between the different sectors where the result is: • efficient use of resources • responsible use of power, and • effective and sustainable service provision • Good governance emerges when stakeholders engage and participate with each other in an inclusive, transparent and accountable manner to accomplish better services free of corruption and abuse, and within the rule of law
Good governance? Decentralisation Fair legislation Public finance for decentralization and accountability Gender mainstreaming Responsive services Promotion of democracy Inclusive of all members of society Protection of the environment Strengthening civil society Protection of human rights Consensus about society’s best interests Transparency, equity, accountability
Commitment to good governance Countries need to create their own good governance frameworks, through locally led participatory processes. “Without ‘good’, or at least ‘good enough’, governance the fight against poverty cannot be won.”(1) (1) Dfid, 2007: Governance, Development and Democratic Politics: DFID’s work in building more effective states
EXAMPLE “What is water governance? • Water governance is the set of systems that control decision-making of water management and water service delivery • Water governance is about who gets what water, when and how • Water governance is profoundly political particularly where there is competition for limited water resources • Systems of water governance usually reflect the political and cultural realities at national, provincial and local levels
More effective water governance Policy and legislative frameworks that protect water resources and ensure water for social and economic development • Needs to address: Institutions for water management that facilitate participation of all stakeholders in a transparent, accountable, gender sensitive and equitable manner Decisions making mechanisms and regulation that achieve responsible use of political power, optimal use of resources, sustainable development and ecological sustainability
Good water governance requires a multi-dimensional approach • Multi-jurisdictional engagement (local, municipal, provincial, national, international) • Multi-purpose development • Multi-sector planning • Multi-sector management • Multi-stakeholder institutions • Multi-purpose support and regulation
What is local governance? • Local governance is the set of: • policy frameworks • structures • mechanisms • relationships and • decision making that takes place at the local level to deliver a service • Local governance varies from country to country • It depends upon the constitution, policy and legislation of a country • The greater decentralisation, the more developed local governance frameworks are likely to be
Good governance involves multiple actors Public sector Policy and legal framework Policy instruments Monitoring, Enforcement Research and education Coordination Private sector Production Investments Pollution prevention Service delivery Re-use, recycling Codes of conduct Information, Etc Civil society Watchdog Awareness raising Campaigns Eco-labelling Service provision Etc. Envi. Governance households Consumption Waste management Service delivery NR management Monitoring Etc.
National Framework: constitutional, policy, legislative and fiscal environment Enabling policy frameworks Participatory decision making processes Collaborative stakeholder relationships Good local governance Inclusive implementation processes Efficient, effective and responsive services Mechanisms for participation, responsiveness, equity, inclusiveness, transparency, and accountability
What is local governance for water, sanitation and hygiene services? • It is the decisions, processes and relationships governing WASH services at the local level • It involves all stakeholders who have an interest or role in WASH services, including the public, private and civil society sectors • Because water is key to development, local governance of WASH involves all those stakeholders involved in integrated development
Local governance for WASH services National policy and legislative framework Local Governance Sanitation Water Hygiene WASH
Electricity Water Integrated Development Health Sanitation and Hygiene Waste management Housing Transport EM governance is broader than water, sanitation and hygiene WASH governance is part of governance for local integrated development
Good governance for sustainable WASH services Good governance for sustainable WASH services includes all the relationships, mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which stakeholders can mediate their interests, exercise their rights and obligations and make decisions for the delivery and provision of services
Good governance for sustainable EM services means: • Advocacy and communication to promote WASH services so that communities can express demand and make choices • Structures for participatory strategic planning where all stakeholders come together to make good decisions • Financial mechanisms which include cost recovery and innovative methods of finance • Sharing knowledge and information to empower local stakeholders to participate in problem solving, planning and strategic decision making and to improve their capacity to act
Participatory and strategic approach to local governance Financing and cost recovery Themes to achieve good governance for WASH services Advocacy and communication Sector knowledge sharing and learning Monitoring and evaluation Good governance for WASH services Support to community institutions Sanitation, school sanitation and hygiene Transparency gender and equity Capacity development Multiple use services
How is good governance put into practice for WASH services? • Good governance cannot be applied in a vacuum • It needs to be applied to the different elements of WASH services – from policy, through to planning, to financing, to developing infrastructure, to providing the service and ultimately to regulation
Good governance for sustainable WASH services means: • Capacity building so that the capabilities, expertise and skills in local WASH institutions are retained and developed to improve the delivery of services. • Mechanisms to ensure access to transparent, gender sensitive, and equitable services • Ensuring an enabling environment for service provision, so that, service providers have access to support, such as skills development, specialist expertise, local supply chains, and other resources • Systems and procedures for accountability, monitoring, evaluation and reporting
Good governance from policy to sustainable services It needs to address the entire service delivery ‘life cycle Policy Planning Financing Implementation (infrastructure development) Service Provision (sustainable services) Good governance The development of good policies require: participation, advocacy, communication, gender equity, transparency, monitoring and feedback, support, accountability, sector knowledge sharing, and so on. The same applies to planning services, deciding tariffs and subsidies, implementing capital projects and ultimately providing the service
Key elements to deliver WASH services Infrastructure Delivering WASH services 4 Institutional arrangements for service provision Finance 3 5 2 6 Planning Regulation 1 Policies and bylaws (enabling environment)
Key elements to deliver a service • An enabling environment which at the local level includes the policies and bylaws within which water, sanitation and hygiene services must be delivered • Planning services (for the municipal / district / local area) • Finance (capital and operating and setting tariffs) • Infrastructure (development of new infrastructure and maintaining existing infrastructure) • institutional arrangements for the ongoing provision of the services (a water service provider) • regulating the service to ensure that it is provided according to the policy and bylaws.
Cost recovery and innovative finance Monitoring and evaluation Sector knowledge sharing and learning Advocacy and communication Infrastructure Water, sanitation and hygiene services (WASH) Institutional arrangements for service provision Finance Multiple use services Participatory and strategic approach to local governance Planning Regulation Capacity development Policies and bylaws (enabling environment) Support to community institutions Gender and equity Transparency
Environmental Governance MIS CONCEPTION • “Good environmental governance broadly refers to societal control mechanisms and processes that link key decisions and actions on the environment to shared social and ecological objectives
Misconceptions… No! You need a policy framework with direction, responsibilities and goals. PRINCIPLE 1. POLICY EM pilots will start the process…
Misconceptions… No! You need to build the skills within the government and set up the right institutions. PRINCIPLE 2. CAPACITY BUILDING EM focus on ring fencing the project…
Misconceptions… No! Overall framework should be simpler, fewer and better. PRINCIPLE 3. LEGAL PPPs … prescriptive rules and tight control…
Misconceptions… No! Governments must assume some risk and offer some subsidy. PRINCIPLE 4. RISK SHARING PPPs provide assets to governments at no risk and no cost
Misconceptions… No! Competition allows for the best partner and the best project. PRINCIPLE 5. PROCUREMENT PPPs …no tender required…
Misconceptions… No! People have to be put first. PRINCIPLE 6. PUTTING PEOPLE FIRST Keep people out: they do not understand the technical matters…
Misconceptions… No! Project can make profit and achieve social and environmental goals. PRINCIPLE 7. ENVIRONMENT …you have to choose between profit and social and environment development…
Environmental governance includes: Environmental governance includes: • Transparency, accountability, people’s participation, decentralisation up to the lowest level of community and the rule of law; • Making environment related decisions publicly. • Making individuals and communities participate in environmental decision-making processes and discussions; • Representation of communities to be affected by environmental decisions; and • Holding decision makers accountable for the integrity of decision-making procedures and the result of decisions
Good governance and human rights socioeconomic and cultural rights • to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being; and • (b) to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures that – • (i) prevent pollution and ecological degradation • (ii) promote conservation; and • (iii) secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development.
The role of governance for improved environmental outcomes • Governance aspects need to be considered when aiming at improving implementation of environmental legislation and other environmental measures • Good governance is needed to manage large flows of environmental and climate change finance. • Factors related to corruption, impartiality and government effectiveness are • influential to reach positive environmental outcomes
Environmental governance is cross-cutting, relates to international, national, • and sub-national levels, and involves many actors • Context specific analysis is needed to identify key governance bottlenecks and • priority interventions for environmental management
Effectiveness and efficiency – • Processes and institutions should produce results that meet needs while making the best use of resources. • Responsiveness: Institutions and processes should serve all stakeholders and respond properly to changes in demand and preferences, or other new circumstances
Coordination, integration and coherency Governance should enhance and promote coordinated and holistic approaches to effectively integrate several policy and institutional areas and a multitude of stakeholders. Policies and actions must be coherent and consistent, strive towards the same goals, and be easily understood.
Rule of law and impartiality – Legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially, with equity and in a nondiscriminatory way. All citizens, irrespective of gender, religion, sexuality, ethnicity, and age, are of equal value and entitled to equal treatment under the law, as well as equitable access to opportunities, services and resources. All people in society should have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being
Accountability – Decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society organisations, should be responsible for executing their powers properly and be accountable to the public for what they do and for how they do it.
Transparency – Is built on the free flow of information in society. Processes, institutions and information should be directly accessible to those concerned.
Integrity – Behaviors and actions consistent with a set of moral and ethical principles and standards, embraced by individuals as well as institutions, creating a barrier to corruption
Participation – All men and women should have a voice, or through legitimate intermediate institutions representing their interests, in decision-making and the development and implementation of policies and programs that affect them. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech, capacities to participate constructively, as well as national and local governments following an inclusive approach.
Internal and external aspects to strengthen environmental governance Environmental authorities (internal aspects) Enabling environment (external aspects) Knowledge and information about the importance of environment and climate change Environmental management is a prioritized policy issue Environmental regulations with clearly defined responsibilities Horizontal and vertical communication Rule of Law, low corruption Access to information, public participation, accountability Environmental constituencies demanding improved environmental management • Policy development (policies, laws, regulations, policy instrument) • Policy implementation (inspection, compliance and enforcement) • Research and assessment (research, evaluation, environmental information systems) Environmental integration (sector responsibility, producer responsibility) • Operational support (organisational development, human resources, finance and accounting)