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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'C++ EARLY OBJECT' - jermaine-holcomb

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C++ EARLY OBJECT

Chapter 9 Searching & Sorting Algorithm

- Linear & Binary Searching;

- Bubble & Selection Sorting;

- Review Array and Vector object;

Learning How to PROGRAMMING

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

9.1 Introduction to Search Algorithms

9.2 Searching an Array of Objects

9.3 Introduction to Sorting Algorithms

9.4 Sorting an Array of Objects

9.5 Sorting and Searching Vectors

9.6 Introduction to Analysis of Algorithms

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

9.1 Introduction to Search Algorithms

Linear Search: Binary Search:

Set found to false

Set position to –1

Set index to 0

While index < size & not found

If list [index] is equal to search value

found = true

position = index

End If

index++

End While

Return position

- Set found to false
- Set position to –1
- Set 1st to 0 and last to size -1
- While 1st < = last & not found
- set middle to half between 1st & last
- If array [middle] is equal to the search value
- set found to true
- set position to middle
- else If array [middle] is > the search value
- set last to middle - 1
- else
- set 1st to middle + 1
- End if
- End While
- Return position

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

Linear Search: Linear Search Tradeoffs

- Array numlist contains
- Searching for the the value 11, linear search examines 17, 23, 5, and 11
- Searching for the the value 7, linear

search examines 17, 23, 5, 11, 2, 29, and 3

- Benefits
- Easy algorithm to understand and to implement
- Elements in array can be in any order
- Disadvantage
- Inefficient (slow): for array of N elements, it examines N/2 elements on average for a value that is found in the array, N elements for a value that is not in the array

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

- Set found to false
- Set position to –1
- Set 1st to 0 and last to size -1
- While 1st < = last & not found
- set middle to half between 1st & last
- If array [middle] is equal to the search value
- set found to true
- set position to middle
- else If array [middle] is > the search value
- set last to middle - 1
- else
- set 1st to middle + 1
- End if
- End While
- Return position

- Divide a sorted array into three sections:
- middle element
- elements on one side of the middle element
- elements on the other side of the middle element
- If the middle element is the correct value, done. Otherwise, go to step 1, using only the half of the array that may contain the correct value.
- Continue steps 1 and 2 until either the value is found or there are no more elements to examine.

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Linear Search Tradeoffs

- Array numlist2 contains
- Searching for the the value 11, binary search examines 11 and stops
- Searching for the the value 7, binary
- search examines 11, 3, 5, and stops

- Benefits
- Much more efficient than linear search. For an array of N elements, it performs at most
- log2N comparisons.
- Disadvantage
- Requires that array elements be sorted

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

9.2 Searching an Array of Objects

- Search algorithms are not limited to arrays of integers
- When searching an array of objects or structures, the value being searched for is a member of an object or structure, not the entire object or structure
- Member in object/structure: key field
- Value used in search: search key

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

9.2 Searching an Array of Objects

- Search algorithms are not limited to arrays of integers
- When searching an array of objects or structures, the value being searched for is a member of an object or structure, not the entire object or structure
- Member in object/structure: key field
- Value used in search: search key

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

9.3 Introduction to Sorting Algorithms

- Sort: arrange values into an order
- Alphabetical
- Ascending (smallest to largest) numeric
- Descending (largest to smallest) numeric
- Two algorithms considered here
- Bubble sort –
- Compare 1st two elements and exchange them if they are out of order.
- Move down one element and compare 2nd and 3rd elements. Exchange if necessary. Continue until the end of the array.
- Pass through the array again, repeating the process and exchanging as necessary.
- Repeat until a pass is made with no exchanges.
- Selection sort –
- Locate smallest element in array and exchange it with element in position 0.
- Locate next smallest element in array and exchange it with element in position 1.
- Continue until all elements are in order.

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

17

23

5

11

5

23

11

Finally, compare values

23 and 11. Not in correct

order, so exchange them.

Compare values 17 and

23. In correct order, so

no exchange.

First, compare values 17

and 23. In correct order,

so no exchange.

Compare values 17 and

5. Not in correct order,

so exchange them.

Then, compare values

23 and 5. Not in correct

order, so exchange them.

Compare values 17 and

11. Not in correct order,

so exchange them.

Bubble Sort Example

Array numlist3 contains

In order from previous pass

After first pass,

array numlist3 contains

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

5

11

17

23

Compare values 17 and

23. In correct order, so

no exchange.

Compare values 5 and

11. In correct order, so

no exchange.

Compare values 11 and

17. In correct order, so

no exchange.

Bubble Sort Example

After second pass, array numlist3 contains

No exchanges, so

array is in order

Bubble Sort Tradeoffs

- Benefit
- Easy to understand and to implement
- Disadvantage
- Inefficiency makes it slow for large arrays

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

Now in order

Bubble Sort Example

- Array numlist contains
- Smallest element is 2. Exchange 2 with
- element in 1st array position (i.e., element 0).

Now in order

- Next smallest element is 3. Exchange
- 3 with element in 2nd array position.
- Next smallest element is 11. Exchange

11 with element in 3rd array position.

- More efficient than Bubble Sort,

due to fewer exchanges.

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

9.4 Sorting an Array of Objects

- As with searching, arrays to be sorted (by Bubble sort or selection sort) can contain objects or structures
- The key field determines how the structures or objects will be ordered (on sorting row)

If (array[].getCode(count) > array[].getCode(count+1) )

- When exchanging the contents of array elements, entire structures or objects must be exchanged (need to be swaped), not just the key fields in the structures or objects

If (array[].getCode(count) > array[].getCode(count+1) )

{ //swap entire row by:

array[count] =array[count+1]; }

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

9.5 Sorting and Searching Vectors

- Sorting and searching algorithms can be applied to vectors as well as to arrays
- Need slight modifications to functions to use vector arguments
- vector <type> & used in prototype
- No need to indicate vector size, as functions can use size member function to calculate

Example:

void sortVector(vector<int> &numbers)

{ //. . . .

do

{ swap = false;

for (unsigned count = 0; count < numbers.size()-1; count++)

{

if (numbers[count] > numbers[count + 1])

{ //do swaping

numbers[count] = numbers[count + 1];

swap = true;

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

9.6 Analysis of Algorithms: Terminology

- Computational Problem: a problem solved by an algorithm
- Basic step: an operation in the algorithm that executes in a constant amount of time
- Examples of basic steps:
- exchange the contents of two variables
- compare two values
- Efficiency of an algorithm is measured by
- space (computer memory used)
- time (how long to execute the algorithm)
- Complexity of an algorithm: the number of basic steps required to execute the algorithm for an input of size N (N=# of input values)
- Worst-case complexity of an algorithm: the number of basic steps for input of size N that requires the most work
- Average case complexity function:

the complexity for typical, average inputs of size N

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

- OVERVIEW Course 2100 C/C++:

What you must learn in this course.

Key to to success is reviewing and understanding each Chapter’s examples and the Fill-in-the-Blank & Short Answer, and reviewing all your exercises.

- Midterm Exam Formation - Final exam format:
- Concepts;
- Using cin & cout, knowing what are read in & output; efficiently using formation;
- Analyzing short statements or write few lines of code block;
- key to success: using functions & loops, knowing how to create short functions with parameters, how to pass augments to the function & return value as a designated type; and using array & structure; such as how to declaration & use their object;
- Knowing basic of classes and objects, being able to create class, constructors and objects, reviewing program 7-3 for the concepts
- Find errors in a given block of code; reviewing the questions in the Find the Errors of each Chapter.
- Answer Questions

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

YOUR ASSIGNMENT #6 – A6 DUE ON 03/10/2014 (after Midterm)CHAPTER 9 – #20 OF ALGORITHM WORKBENCH AND #8 OF PROGRAMMING CHALLENGES(REFERRING TO THE BOOK LINEAR SEARCH (PAGE #597, PROGRAM 9-1) AND BINARY SEARCH (PAGE601, PROGRAM 9-2)----- You don’t need to turn in the followings ------- READINGS by your own pace: CH.9 – #1-4, 8, 9, 17- GROUP DISCUSSING in classroom: CH.9 – #6 OF PROGRAMMING CHALLENGES.KEY CONCEPTS TO SUCCESS:- Idea of a simple algorithm into pesudocode;- Familiar with looping techniquees with while, do-while - Familiar with function call by passing aguments and value returnning; array and object can be directly passed in or returned- Interesting topic of encoding and decode stechniquees; see tying it all together: secret messages on page 628.

Week 7 02/17/2014 Course CSIS 2100 Dr. Simon QiuTextbook Contents of Pearson Education, Inc.

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