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Central European Monarchs Clash. Chapter 5 Section 3. DLT: . I can explain how th e clash of Central European monarchs led to war. I can describe the impact of the Thirty Years War. I can analyze how the causes of war are the same yesterday, today, and forever.

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Central european monarchs clash

Central European Monarchs Clash

Chapter 5 Section 3

Central european monarchs clash

  • I can explain how the clash of Central European monarchs led to war.

  • I can describe the impact of the Thirty Years War.

  • I can analyze how the causes of war are the same yesterday, today, and forever.

Huh religion causes war maybe
Huh? Religion causes war? Maybe.

  • Peace of Augsburg

    • German princes determined religion of their states

  • Tension

    • Both Lutherans and Catholics felt threatened by Calvinism

  • Protestant Union

    • Lutherans joined together

  • Catholic League

    • Catholics joined together a year later

  • Alliances are formed…waiting on the spark!

The spark was ferd a turd
The spark…was Ferd a turd?

  • Ferdinand II, future HRE and head of the Hapsburg family ruled Bohemia

    • He was Catholic, they were protestant

  • Bohemians did not trust ol’ Ferd

    • He was a foreigner and a Catholic

  • Ferd closed some Protestant Churches

  • The Bohemian Protestants revolted

  • Ferd sent in an army to crush the rebellion

  • Several German Protestant princes took this chance to challenge their Catholic emperor

The thirty years war begins
The Thirty Years’ War Begins

  • 1618-1648

  • Conflict over religion, territory, and power among European ruling families

  • Two main phases of the war…

    • Hapsburg Triumphs

    • Hapsburg Defeats

Hapsburg triumphs
Hapsburg Triumphs

  • First twelve years

  • Hapsburg armies from Austria and Spain crushed the armies of the German Protestant princes

  • Hapsburg put down a Czech uprising and defeated the German Protestants who supported the Czechs

Hapsburg defeats
Hapsburg Defeats

  • Tide turned in 1630 with Protestant GustavusAdolphus of Sweden and his army of 23,000

  • Drove Hapsburgs out of northern Germany

  • The French Cardinals, Richelieu and Mazarin, joined the Protestants

    • WHY?

Results of war
Results of War

  • Great damage to Germany

  • Population dropped from 20 million to 16 million

  • Trade and agriculture were disrupted

  • Economy was ruined

  • Long, difficult recovery

  • Germany would not be a unified state until the 1800s

Peace of westphalia 1648
Peace of Westphalia 1648

  • Weakened the Hapsburg states (Spain&Austria)

  • Strengthened France (gave German territory)

  • German princes independent of HRE

  • Ended religious wars

  • New method of peace negotiation that we still use today

Most important results
Most important results

  • Catholic Empire would no longer rule over most of Europe

  • Europe was a group of equal, independent states

  • Marked the beginning of the modern state system

Economic contrasts with the west
Economic Contrasts with the West

  • Serfs in Western Europe slowly won freedom and moved to towns during the late Middle Ages

  • Serfs in Central Europe restricted from gaining freedom and moving to cities

    • This way the nobles could produce a large harvest and sell the surplus to Western Europe at a great profit

Several weak empires
Several Weak Empires

  • Nobles held down the serfs, but also blocked the development of strong kings

  • Kingdom of Poland

    • Little income, no law courts, no standing army

  • Holy Roman Empire

    • Weakened by the 30 Years’ War, no control of German states, HRE had no real power

  • Ottoman Empire

    • Reached its peak in 1529 and declined

Austria grows stronger
Austria Grows Stronger

  • Hapsburgs took steps to become absolute monarchs

  • 1st Conquered Bohemia and wiped out Protestantism, new Czech nobility pledged loyalty to them

  • 2nd Ruler centralized govt and created standing army

  • 3rd 1699 they had reclaimed Hungary from Ottomans

  • 1711 Charles VI ruled a diverse group

    • Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Croatians, and Germans

  • Wore the Austrian, Hungarian, and Bohemian crowns to keep the empire together

Maria theresa inherits austria 1717 1780
Maria Theresa Inherits Austria 1717-1780

  • Charles VI’s eldest daughter

  • Charles had bargained with other leaders, making an agreement to ensure a peaceful reign

  • Instead, she faced years of war

  • Her main enemy: Prussia (north of Austria)

Prussia challenges austria
Prussia Challenges Austria

  • Ruling Family: Hohenzollerns

  • Their ambition threatened to disrupt the delicate balance of power in Europe

  • Their land: German states of Brandenburg and Prussia

Frederick william elector of brandenburg 1640
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg 1640

  • “Great Elector”

  • Decided that having a strong army was the only way to ensure safety

  • 80,000 men to protect their lands

  • Permanent taxation

  • Weakened representative assemblies

  • Junkers resisted, but were then offered military positions

Frederick ii the great 1712 1786
Frederick (II) the Great 1712-1786

  • His father believed he was soft (made him witness friend’s death)

  • Followed his father’s military policies

  • Softened some laws

    • Religious toleration

    • Legal reform

  • Believed ruler should be a father to his people

War of the austrian succession 1740 1748
War of the Austrian Succession 1740-1748

  • Frederick the Great wanted the Austrian land of Silesia because of its rich natural resources

  • He assumed Maria Theresa wouldn’t fight back

  • She went to the Hungarian nobles for aid

  • Great Britain also joined the Austrians to fight their long time enemy (France), who was helping Prussia

  • Maria Theresa stopped Prussia, but lost Silesia in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

    • With Silesia, Prussia became a major European power

Seven years war 1756 1763
Seven Years War 1756-1763

  • Maria Theresa made an alliance with France

  • Frederick then signed a treaty with Britain

  • Now Austria, France, Russia, and others were allied against Britain and Prussia

  • 1756 Frederick attacked Saxony (Austrian ally)

  • Every great European power joined the war

  • Fought in Europe, India, and North America (French and Indian War)

  • Didn’t change territories in Europe

  • British won, as France lost its colonies in North America, and British gained economic dominance of India