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Central European Monarchs Clash. Wallenstein: A Scene of the Thirty Years’ War by Ernest Crofts 1884. Remember: Martin Luther Challenges the Church - 1517. Took a stand against indulgences

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Central european monarchs clash

Central European

Monarchs Clash

Wallenstein: A Scene of the Thirty Years’ War by Ernest Crofts 1884

Remember martin luther challenges the church 1517
Remember: Martin Luther Challenges the Church - 1517

  • Took a stand against indulgences

  • Wrote 95 Theses (formal statements) and posted them on the door of the castle church

Central european monarchs clash

Review: The Peace of Augsburg

  • A 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler (Lutheran or Catholic, but not Calvinist)

  • Initiated by Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor)

Central european monarchs clash

Thirty Years War

A conflict over religion and territory

  • After the Peace of Augsburg (1555), the Catholic and Lutheran princes in Germany were suspicious of each other

  • As tensions mounted, Lutherans joined together in the Protestant Union (1608) and Catholics formed the Catholic League (1609)

Lutherans (Protestants)

Central european monarchs clash

Thirty Years War

The Bohemian Revolt - 1618

  • Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II (head of Hapsburg family) became ruler of Czech kingdom of Bohemia.

  • The Protestants in Bohemia did not trust him.

  • Ferdinand II closed Protestant churches.

  • Bohemians revolted (rebelled)

  • German Protestant rulers took this chance to challenge the Catholic emperor

Hapsburgs (Catholics) against Protestants

Central european monarchs clash

Thirty Years War

The Hapsburg Triumphs

  • Hapsburgs armies from Austria and Spain dominated the first 12 years of the war

  • Ferdinand II allowed his army to plunder and rob villages

Hapsburgs (Catholics) against Protestants

Central european monarchs clash

Thirty Years War

The Hapsburg Defeats - 1630

  • The Protestants of Sweden began to shift the tide of war

  • France’s Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin (Catholics) joined the war in support of the Protestants.

Richelieu ruled for weak King Louis XIII

Mazarin ruled for the young Louis XIV

Central european monarchs clash

Remember: A Powerful Spanish Empire

  • Took the Portuguese kingdom after the King of Portugal died w/o an heir

  • Inherited Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and American colonies from Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor-Hapsburg King)

  • Incredibly wealthy due to empire’s holdings around the globe

  • Hapsburg King Phillip II

  • Reign 1554 - 1598

Central european monarchs clash

Let’s Think…

Why do you think the Catholics of France would want to fight in a war on the side of the Protestants?

  • Fear of Hapsburg domination

  • They did not want other European rulers to have as much power as the French king

Central european monarchs clash

Peace of Westphalia

1648- Ended the War

  • Weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria

  • Strengthened France (they gained German territory)

  • Made German princes independent from the Holy Roman Empire

  • Ended religious wars in Europe

  • Introduced new method of peace negotiations – all parties meet to negotiate

  • Marked the beginning of the modern state system

Central european monarchs clash

States in Central Europe

  • Serfs in W. Europe gained freedom earlier, generally lived in towns and improved their economic standing

  • The economy and states developed more slowly than in Western Europe

    • Land owners in Central Europe made laws restricting movement

    • Land Owners prevented the development of strong kings

  • Austria grows stronger - Hapsburgs

  • Maria Theresa inherits the throne in Austria

Central european monarchs clash

Prussia Challenges Austria

  • From Prussia’s ruling family, the Hohenzollerns

  • Known for religious toleration and legal reform

  • Supported industry

  • Built a huge army through taxation

  • Wanted to take control of Austrian territory

Fredrick the Great Reign 1740 - 1786

Central european monarchs clash

Seven Years’ War 1756 - 63

  • Austria allies with France and Russia against Britain and Prussia

  • No territory changed in Europe

  • France lost North American territories and influence in India to Britain

The Battle of Kolin1757 Anonymous

Central european monarchs clash

Talk with a neighbor…

Why would countries like Britain and France get involved in the affairs of (go to war for) countries like Austria and Prussia?

Can you think of any other examples of countries becoming allies with one another?

Ally:a person, group, or nation that is associated with another or others for some common cause or purpose