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Narratology Lexicon D-F. Studies in Narratology, Summer 2011. Studies in Narratology, Summer 2011. 317. Studies in Narratology, Summer 2011. 318. Studies in Narratology, Summer 2011. 319.

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Narratology Lexicon

D-F

Studies in Narratology, Summer 2011

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deep structure: The abstract underlying structure of narrative; the macrostucture of narrative. The deep structure consists of global syntactico-semantic representations determining the meaning of the narrative and is converted into surface structure by a set of operations or of transformations. ln the Greimassian model of narrative, for example, whereas actants and actantial relations would be elements of the deep structure, actants and actorial relations would be found at the surface-structure level. ln other models of narrative, whereas the deep structure might be said to correspond to story, the surface structure might be said to correspond to Discourse. See: The term and concept were adapted from Chomsky and generative transformational grammar. See: Chomsky 1965; van Dijk 1972; Fuger 1972; Johnson and Mandler 1980. See also NARRATIVE GRAMMAR.

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Discourse Participants

Studies in Narratology, Summer 2011

To (briefly) describe these six participants, let us pretend the text under consideration is Huckleberry Finn. The "rear author" is the flesh and blood writer, Samuel Clemens. The "implied author" is the imaginary conception of "Mark Twain" that a reader constructs from reading the text. (Because each reader formulates his or her own image of "Twain" from weighing subtle hints in the text, readers may not always agree on his characteristics; for instance, some argue that Huckleberry Finn leads them to believe that the person behind the work is terribly racist, others that he is a fierce critic of racism.) The "narrator" is Huck; he is explicitly set forth in the opening lines as the voice telling the tale: "You don't know about me without you have read a book by the name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; but that ain't no matter." The "narratee" is the unspecified person, that “you” above, to whom Huck is supposedly speaking. The "implied reader is the imaginary reader for whom the implied author seems to be writing-someone, in this case, who is willing to criticize the cant and foibles of civilization. The "real reader" is the flesh and blood person reading the book in his or her armchair.

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dispatcher (Propp):One of the seven fundamental roles that a character may assume (in a fairy tale), according to Propp. The dispatcher (analogous to Greimas's SENDER and Sourau’s BALANCE) sends the hero off on his adventures. See: Propp 1968. See also ACTANT, DRAMATIS PERSONA, SPHERE OF ACTION.

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dramatis persona(e): ln Proppian terminology, a fundamental role (in a fairy tale) assumable by a character. Propp isolated seven such roles, each responding to a particular sphere of action: the villain, the donor (provider), the HELPER, the princess (a sought for person) and her father, the DISPATCHER, the HERO (seeker or victim), and the FALSE HERO. See: Propp 1968. See also ACTANT.

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embedded narrative: A narrative within a narrative; a METADIEGETIC NARRATIVE. See: Gennette 1980. See also EMBEDDING, FRAME NARRATIVE.

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embedding:A combination of narrative sequences (recounted in the same narrative instance or in different ones) such that one sequence is embedded (set within) another one. A narrative like "Jane was happy, and Susan was unhappy; then Susan met Flora, and she became unhappy; then Jane met Peter, and she became unhappy" can be said to result from the embedding of "Susan was unhappy; then Susan met Flora, and she became happy" into "Jane was happy; then Jane met Peter, and she became unhappy." Similarly, Manon Lescaut can be said to result from the embedding of Des Grieux's narrative into the one recounted by M. de Renoncourt. See: Along with LINKING and ALTERNATION, embedding (or nesting) is one of the basic ways of combining narrative sequences. See also: Bal 1981b; Berendsen 1981; Bremond 1973; Ducrot and Todorov 1979; Prince 1973, 1982; Todorov 1966, 1981. See also METADIEGETIC NARRATTVE.

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enunciation: 1. The traces in a discourse of the act (and its contextual dimensions) generating that discourse. ln "l will now recount a beautiful story," the DEICTICS "I" and "now" are signs of the enunciation. 2. The act (and its contextual dimensions) generating a discourse. See: Benveniste 1971, 1974; Ducrot and Todorov 1979

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epilogue: A final section in some narratives, coming after the Denouement and not to be confused with it. The epilogue helps to realize fully the design of the work. See: Martin 1986. See also prologue.

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episodic:A series of related events standing apart from surrounding (series of) events because of one or more distinctive features and having a unity. See: Beaugrande 1980; Brooks and Warren 1959. See also GOAL, STORY GRAMMAR.

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episodic plot: A loosely woven plot; a plot in which no strong causal continuity exists between one event or episode and the next; a plot the events or episodes of which have no necessary or probable relation to each other. See: Aristotle 1968; Brooks and Warren 1959.

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falling action: Along with the rising action and the climax, one of the basic constituents of a (dramatic or closely knit) plot structure. The falling action follows the climax and extends to the denouement. See: Freytag 1894. See also FREYTAG's PYRAMID.

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false hero (Propp): One of the seven fundamental roles that a character may assume (in a fairy tale), according to Propp. The false hero (analogous lo Greimas's opponent and Souriau's MARS) pretends to have accomplished what, in fact, the hero accomplished. See: Propp 1968. See also ACTANT, DRAMATIS PERSONA, SPHEBE OF ACTION.

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fiscelle: A term used by Henry James to designate a character whose main function is to throw light on the meaning or significance of the situations and events narrated. Henrietta Stackpole in The Portrait of a Lady and Maria Gostrey in The Ambassadors are ficelles. The term means "string" in French, as well as "trick" or "ruse" (cl. the strings with which a puppeteer controls his or her puppets). See: Booth 1983; H. James 1972; Souvage 1965.

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flashback: An analepsis; a retrospection; a cutback; a switchback. The term is often used in connection with cinematic narrative (Citizen Kane, The Locket, Wild Strawberries). See: Chatman 1 978; Prince 1982; Souvage 1965. See also ANACHRONY, ORDER.

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flashforward:A PROLEPSIS; an ANTICIPATION. The term is often used in connection with cinematic narrative (The Anderson Tapes; Petulia; They Shoot Horses, Don't They?). See: Chatman 1978; Prince 1982. See also ADVANCE NOTICE, ANACHRONY, ORDER.

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flat character: A character endowed with one or very few traits and highly predictable in behavior. Mrs. Micawber in David Copperfield is a flat character. See: Forster 1927. See also ROUND CHARACTER.

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flexi-narrative (Nelson):a “hybrid mix of serial and series forms . . . , involving the closure of one story arc within an episode (like a series) but with other, ongoing story arcs involving the regular characters (like a serial)” (Robin Nelson 82).

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the flow (Williams): Raymond Williams’ designation for the overall system of television--"the defining characteristic of broadcasting, simultaneously as a technology and as a cultural form" [Wikipedia]. We do not just watch programs, Williams argued; we watch television as a whole.

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focal character: The character in terms of whose point of view the narrated situations and events are presented; the character as focalizer; the viewpoint character. ln The Ambassadors Strether is the focal character.

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Freyteg’s pyramid: Gustav Freytag's diagrammatic representation of the structure of a tragedy, . . . often used to characterize (various aspects of) plot in narrative. See Freytag 1894.

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Freyteg’s pyramid

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Freyteg’s pyramid (applied to The Wizard of Oz)

Studies in Narratology, Summer 2011