Group Dynamics and Performance in Team sports. P5/ M3/D2. Group: “ Two or more persons who are interacting with each other in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person”. What defines a group? - Interaction between the members.
Group: “Two or more persons who are interacting with each other in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person”.
What defines a group?
- Interaction between the members.
- Positive feelings towards each other.
- A collective identity distinctive from other groups.
- A sense of shared purpose or objectives
“A good team is more than a group of skilled players; members need to work together effectively to be successful. Steiner (1972)”.
What examples can you think of to back this up???
- Football, Ryder Cup, LionsGroup Processes
Ensure all members understand their own role.
Making sure that members accept their role.
Acknowledging informal roles where they are helpful to the group and dealing with unhelpful informal roles (e.g. troublemakers)
Tuckman and Jensen (1977):
Group Comes together
Period of conflict as roles and status within group are tested
As conflict subsides, co-operation to common goals
Group works together to achieve mutual goals. Relationships are established. New members to group undergo the same processGroup Development
How did the task reflect that process???
Potential productivity – losses due to faulty group processes.
Actual Productivity= The actual performance
Potential productivity= The best possible performance achievable based on group resources (ability/knowledge/skill)
Process loses= Due to working as part of a group (loss in motivation/ lack of communication/ loss of confidence/ reliance on other players etc)Group effectiveness: Steiner (1979)
Tug of war team:
- Individually they can pull 100kg each, yet as a team of 4 they can only pull 360kg in total… why?
Need to improve skill level and performance of players whilst reducing the faulty processes mentioned before.
Tug of war experiment= More men pulling, the less effort each individual put in.
Tendency for individuals to lessen their effort when pat of a group.Ringlemann Effect:
When in groups performers are motivated to work, yet save their best performance when under scrutiny/ alone.
Task Cohesion: The degree to which group members work together and are committed to reaching common goals.
Social Cohesion: The degree to which group members like each other and get on.Cohesion
More positive relationship between task cohesion and performance than between social cohesion and performance
One of the defining features of a group is that its members have common beliefs.
As the group develops so do these norms which members of the group are committed to.
Those who challenge the norms also challenge the group’s solidarity; hence groups exert pressure on their members to conform to these norms.
The leader of the group’s role is to set and maintain these norms.
In teams of 6-8, each team forms a small circle. Ask them to extend their right hand across the circle and hold the left hand of the other team
member opposite them. Then extend their left hand across the circle and hold the
right hand of another group member. The task is to unravel the spider's web of
interlocking arms without letting go of anyone's hands
Were you a group or a team?
What skills did you have to use in order to achieve the task aim?TASK…
Leaders determine how a task is completed… How is their role different from managers?
“Behavioural process of influencing individuals and groups towards goals”
Are appointed by a person of authrority, for example a chairman appointing a manager or manager appointing a coach.
Emerge from a group and take over responsibility, for example John Terry becoming the England captain or Chris Robshaw being the England rugby captain.Leaders…
How would both of these differ in terms of how the captain is received by his team mates??
Learn leadership behaviours from other effective leaders.
Modern theories from Chelladurai and Saleh (1980) suggest that effective leadership vary depending on: CHARACTERISTICS of the ATHLETES, the LEADER and SITUATION.
If the leader behaves appropriately for the particular situation and such behaviour matches the group personalities… this will result in their best performance.Multidimensional model of sport leadership:
Different leaders find different styles successful in one situation and not in another…
- Athlete is involved in the decisions regarding the group goals/ strategies
- Coach/ leader forces decisions o the group independently
Social Support Behaviour:
- Developing group relationships, in order to improve well being of the group
Positive Feedback Behaviour:
- Rewarding individual and group actions through acknowledgement of effort and performanceDifferent Leadership styles:
For P5, learners must identify four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports. This should include aspects of group processes, cohesion and leadership. This could be based on the observation of a game or match; learners could observe the changes in behaviour due to changes in the situation.
Group processes (e.g groups or teams, stages of group development and theories regarding group effectiveness)
Cohesion (e.g task and social cohesion, team climate and factors effecting cohesion)
Leadership (e.g qualities and behaviour, prescribed versus emergent leaders, and theories of leadership)
For M3, which links to P5, learners must explain the four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports.
Analysing the positive and negative factors on performance