Vietnam – 1969 Operation Breakfast • Secret Bombing of Cambodia-target supply routes through Cambodia, lasts for 14months. • Cambodia supposed to be neutral. Some bombing in Laos as well. • Nixon announces “Vietnamization”-pull out U.S. troops, continue to support Vietnamese soldiers. “let them fight own war.” • Ho Chi Minh dies at age 79. • Public finds out about Mi Lai-Lt. Calley, commanding officer, already charged w/murder by Army. • Massive anti-war demonstration in D.C.
Aug. 15-17, 1969 Woodstock • epitome of 60’s hippie culture.
Dec. 6, 1969 - Altamont • Rolling Stones U.S. tour • Hell’s Angels as security • paid them in beer • 4 died: Angel’s beat one to death, 2 others trampled, 1 drowned. • seen as antithesis of Woodstock • “death of the 60s,” 2 concerts 110 days apart.
Invasion of Cambodia, 1970 • withdraw in June • achieved none of the goals. • 1970: beginning of 5 years of civil war in Cambodia. • Congress Withdraws the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • Vietnam at home: • 26th amendment: 18 year olds get the vote • Draft-ends college deferments.
Kent State • May 4, 1970 -students protest Cambodian invasion • National Guard called in, protestors start throwing rocks, bottles at guard, who opened fire • four killed, more wounded. No one punished.
Jackson State • May 14-15, 1970 • students protesting war, racism, and Kent state shooting • National guard and police opened fire • 2 dead, 12 injured. • 406 rounds struck one dorm
Nixon’s Foreign Policy • Secretary of State Henry Kissinger • 1971-Intervention in Laos, South loses, televised. • 1972-U.S. opens diplomatic relations with China. Nixon visits Feb-March. • 1972-Easter Offensive • U.S. launches a massive bombing campaign • Vietcong offensive stalls by June.
Nixon’s Foreign Policy • May 1972-Nixon travels to Moscow, signs SALT I with Leonid Brezhnev • Froze ICBM deployment, limit of 200 ABM, 2 ABM systems, over a five years period. Didn’t address MIRV’s-Multiple Independent Re-entry Vehicles. • Détente: thawing of foreign relations • USSR bought $750 mil worth of grain over the next three yrs • exchange of athletes, artists, dancers, etc… (will lead to some defections, especially in the 80s)
Vietnam Peace Negotiations • Oct 1972-“Peace is at Hand” • Re-election in November 1972 • South Vietnamese President Thieu rejects deal • Christmas bombings of Hanoi: eleven days-2000 civilians dead, hospital, large parts of the city, leveled • Massive public reaction • U.S. gives Thieu an ultimatum • Peace settlement-Jan. 23, 1973-“Peace with honor” LBJ died the day before • 1973-War Powers Act: 60day limit on presidential commitment of troops to foreign campaigns, unless Congress voted approval • Fighting resumes b/t united Viet Minh/Viet Cong forces and S. Vietnamese army (Pres. Thieu resumes war) • Communist forces take Mekong Delta
Vietnam • According to the United States Army, it killed 1 million Vietnamese directly in combat. That does not count the effects of bombing. • According to the Finnish Inquiry Commission, the United States' war also killed 600,000 in Cambodia. • Took $150 billion, 58,000 U.S. lives • Returning Vets neglected or worse. Post traumatic Stress disorder
Disintegrating Counterculture • 1969-Black Panthers Fred Hampton and Mark Clark die in a Chicago police raid. The Weathermen form. • 1970-Weather Underground go into hiding • June: New York City police headquarters bombed. • July: 13 Weathermen indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of conspiring to engage in acts of terrorism. A New York bank is bombed in retaliation. • Key members surrender to police in ’77 &’80, official end in ’81 • COINTELPRO evidence surfaces starting March 8, 1971
Economic Effect of Vietnam • Inflation, stagflation • U.S. Oil dependence: fueling automobiles and homes in a country increasingly dominated by suburbs, became an economic and political tool for Third World nations to begin fighting for their concerns. • OPEC-Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries begins using its leverage. • Following the 1973 Yom Kippur War, (Syria and Egypt w/Soviet backing, against Israel, w/ U.S. backing.) Arab members of OPEC announced they would no longer ship petroleum to nations supporting Israel (United States and Western Europe) (1967-6 days war b/t Israel and Egypt-Israel victorious, PLO forms in response) • At the same time, other OPEC nations agreed to raise their prices 400 percent.
The 1973 World Oil Shock • Oil Embargo: Oct 1973-March 1974 • Gas rationing, lines • Public and private facilities closed down to save on heating oil, factories cut production and laid off workers
Nixon’s Domestic Policy • New Federalism, Federal Liberalism • continue liberal ideology, welfare, govt responsibility, but put $ and decision-making into state and local hands. • Family Assistance Plan-first tinkering w/ welfare. • Democratic Congress • Environmental Legislation • OSHA-Occupational Safety and Health Administration • EPA-Environmental Protection Agency • Clean Air Act • Clean Water Act • Pesticide Control Act
Watergate • Nixon’s Personality • CREEP • Woodward & Bernstein • Deep Throat (Mark Felt) • The Tapes • Aug, 8, 1974-Nixon Resigns • Shatters the Public’s trust in Govt
Gerald Ford becomes President • A “nice guy but played too much football w/o a helmet”-LBJ • Never elected as VP or Pres. (Agnew resigns in 1973) • Pardons Nixon-good for country, bad for Ford’s popularity • Betty Ford-outspoken, issues of alcoholism, says she supports abortion rights. • Two different women try to kill him on two different occasions • Clumsy-tripped &/or fell down numerous times, kept hitting head on Air force One, fell out of a boat while fishing, attacked by a rabbit.
During Ford’s term, Saigon falls to Viet Minh, country reunited under Northern leadership. Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City. Hanoi capital (N). Last Americans evacuated from Saigon embassy via helicopters. • Begin waves of “boat people,” many were pro-U.S. or deemed enemies of the state in one way or another.
April 1974-Cambodia falls to Khmer Rouge, Pol Pot • Capital, Phnom Penh emptied, conservative est. 1.4 million out of 7-8 mil died. • 1978/79-Vietnam invades Cambodia, seeking to overthrow Khmer Rouge regime. • U.S. supports Khmer Rouge. • 1985-Vietnamese forces defeat Khmer Rouge rebels in battles spilling over into Thailand. • 1989-last Vietnamese troops leave Cambodia. UN aid. • 1993-UN sponsored election-coalition govt
U.S. Economic Slide • Eco. problems continue, meanwhile Japan is booming • shift from industry to service and technology jobs • urban business flight, resulting in ghettos, high urban unemployment • prices go up, pay doesn’t, layoffs, factory closings,