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  1. Bellringer • What are the products of photosynthesis? • What do living things do with these products? • Why do we need to breathe Oxygen?

  2. “You are what you eat” • Food is broken down and used by cells for energy and to build other molecules

  3. Carbohydrates • Simple • Single sugars • Complex • Many simple sugars bonded together

  4. 1 2 3 Pg. 116 4

  5. What is cellular respiration? • The process by which cells breathe • The process by which cells release energy from molecules to make ATP • The process by which cells take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen • All of the above

  6. What is cellular respiration? • The process by which cells breathe • The process by which cells release energy from molecules to make ATP • The process by which cells take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen • All of the above

  7. O2 BREATHING CO2 Lungs O2 CO2 Bloodstream CELLULAR RESPIRATION Breathing and Cellular Respiration are related

  8. Cellular Respiration • Cellular Respiration: The releasing of energy from the chemical bonds in food • IT PRODUCES ATP!!!

  9. Cellular Respiration: 4 Steps • Glycolysis • Acetyl-CoA Production • Krebs Cycle • Electron Transport Chain Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon dioxide Water Energy

  10. Sunlight In the CHLOROPLAST… Photosynthesis CO2, H2O O2, glucose In the MITOCHONDRION… Cellular Respiration ATP

  11. Cellular Respiration ALL LIVING THINGS perform cellular respiration Everything needs ATP There are 2 types of respiration AEROBIC RESPIRATION : uses oxygen ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION: doesn’t use oxygen IMPORTANT: These two end differently, but both start with glycolysis

  12. AEROBIC RESPIRATION C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + 36ATPs glucose oxygen carbon water energy dioxide 3 STAGES: Glycolysis (Occurs in the cytoplasm) Kreb’s Cycle (Occurs in the mitochondria) Electron Transport Chain (in mitochondria)

  13. 1. 1. Glycolysis 1. Glycolysis Where? The cytoplasm 1. Glycolysis Where? The cytoplasm What? Breaks down glucose to pyruvate, produces 2 ATPs

  14. Glycolysis • Stage 1: Glycolysis – breaks down glucose (6 Carbons) into 2 pyruvate molecules (3 Carbons each) • Uses 2 ATP; produces 4 ATP • net gain 2 ATP • Produces 2 NADH (an electron carrier) • Occurs in cytoplasm, does not need oxygen

  15. 6-carbon glucose  two 3-carbon pyruvates

  16. 2. 2. Acetyl-CoA Production Where? Mitochondria What? Each pyruvate molecule is broken down to form Acetyl-CoA Pyruvate Acetyl CoA

  17. 3. Krebs Cycle Where? Mitochondria 3. What? Uses Acetyl Co-A to generate 2 ATPs

  18. 4. 4. Electron Transport Chain Where? Mitochondria What? 32 ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule

  19. Glucose 1. Glycolysis No Oxygen Anaerobic Oxygen Aerobic Pyruvate 2. Acetyl Co-A Production Fermentation 3. Krebs Cycle 4. ETC 36 ATP from each molecule of glucose

  20. The Link Reaction Links glycolosis to the Kreb’s Cycle Pyruvic acid (3C) is turned into Acetyl CoA (2C) The extra carbon is chopped off and released as CO2 Produces 2 NADH

  21. Stage 2: The Kreb’s Cycle(Requires O2) Acetyl CoA is used to make citric acid (6 C) Citric Acid is then broken down to release energy, which is used to make the products of the Kreb’s cycle Kreb’s Cycle produces: 2 ATP 6 NADH, 2 FADH2 (electron carriers) 4 CO2 (remember, these numbers are from starting with 1 glucose molecule)

  22. Stage 3: Electron Transport Chain At this point, most of the energy from the glucose molecule is in the electrons THE NADH’S and FADH2’S NADH and FADH2 release their electrons! The electrons release energy as they move down the ETC 32 ATP are produced as they move down the ETC Electrons are ‘caught’ by oxygen molecules at the end of ETC

  23. ETC Cont’d… • When the electrons join the oxygen, it forms H2O • Oxygen acts as the final “electron acceptor” in the chain • This is why oxygen is necessary for aerobic respiration. Otherwise, electrons would get clogged in a “traffic jam”

  24. Aerobic Respiration Totals! In total, Aerobic Respiration Makes: 36 ATP FROM 1 GLUCOSE (2 ATP from glycolysis) (2 ATP from Krebs) (32 ATP from ETC)

  25. Bellringer • What is the formula for photosynthesis? • What is the formula for Aerobic Respiration? • Is this a cycle? • Why do we need to breathe?

  26. Bellringer • Would you say we are “advanced” or “complicated” as a species? • What allows us this level of complexity?

  27. Anaerobic Respiration When oxygen is not present after glycolysis, anaerobic respiration occurs this only produces 2 ATP per glucose

  28. Anaerobic Respiration Has two stages: Stage 1: glycolysis (2 ATP) Stage 2: fermentation (0 ATP) Two types of Fermentation: Lactic Acid Fermentation: 1 glucose ---> 2 pyruvates ---> lactic acid Happens in animals When muscle cells can’t get enough oxygen to keep up with our exercise needs, lactic acid is produced This causes muscle to ache

  29. Alcohol fermentation ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION: 1 glucose ---> 2 pyruvates ---> ethanol and CO2 Happens in fungi or bacteria Produces ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide

  30. Poisons and how they work! Rotenone, cyanide, and carbon monoxide block parts of the electron transport chain Oligomycin blocks the passage of H+ through ATP synthase Uncouplers such as DNP destroy the H+ gradient by making the membrane leaky to H+

  31. Carbs, fats, and proteins can all be catabolized through the same pathways (they may just enter the pathway at different sites)

  32. Bellringer • What is your hypothesis in this lab? • What content from this class led you to come up with that hypothesis?

  33. Bellringer • Give me a brief summary of what happens in photosynthesis • Give me a brief summary of what happens in respiration • What kind of respiration do we do?