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First Column of Id and Sigs . Kathryn Wilson and Michelle Taylor Group Leaders. Tigris and Euphrates. Two rivers surrounding Mesopotamia Beginning of a development of a civilization Fertile soil from waters allowed for crop growth and growth of populations

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First Column of Id and Sigs

Kathryn Wilson and Michelle Taylor

Group Leaders

Tigris and euphrates l.jpg
Tigris and Euphrates

Two rivers surrounding Mesopotamia

Beginning of a development of a civilization

Fertile soil from waters allowed for crop growth and growth of populations

The diagram: rivers; agriculture; populations; cities; specialization; hierarchy

Just as Nile does for Egypt and the Yellow and the Yanzi did for China

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Equal-field system

Government allocation of agricultural land during the Tang Dynasty

Equal distribution of land to avoid unfair social problems of the Han dynasty

Example of centralization (someone had to come up with the plan and government controls who gets what)

Based on land’s fertility and recipient's needs

One-fifth of land was able to be passed down to future generations; rest of land was up for redistribution

There were two other ways Tang dynasty centralized: Grand Canal and Bureaucracy of merit, while the Shang and Zhou centralized based on rivers, bronze, agriculture, silk, etc.

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Theme System

System established by Byzantine rulers in which specific areas were governed by generals for military defense and civil administration duties

It allowed the Byzantine empire to rule a larger area and have better defenses against invaders

Example of centralization since all power was centralized to one ruler of each theme and proved an effective way to keep order by the general drafting peasants into the army who received land in exchange for their military service.

The Bantu adopted a similar organized community based system with Chiefdoms in charge instead of generals, although the Bantu was not a centralized society

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Code of Hammurabi

Standards for behavior and stern punishments for violators in Mesopatamia

Created by Kind Hammurabi of the Babylonian Empire (1792-1750 B.C.)

Based on lex talionis, or the law of retaliation

Created to bring justice to an area in which the belief of no afterlife provided no consequences for one’s actions

Ancient China did believe that there was some sort of afterlife and believed the ancestors in the afterlife watched over the living so therefore the living had a reason to act according to law

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Founded by Kong Fuzi (Confusius) in China

Confucianism promoted human relationships, qualified government officials, the importance of education and social activism

Before Confucianism, china was in a period of chaos, as a result of the dynasties

Confucianism, and legalism as well as Daoism wanted to identify princicples that would restore political and social order. Confucianism was seen as a cause and effect." Junzi "superior individuals" did not allow personal interests to influence their judgements. Confucianism focused on social activism and Confucis believes goverenments were not governing on behalf of the people so he wanted to change that.

Daoism can be seen as an opposite of Confucianism because it focuzes on thinking inwardly and not outwardly like confucianism does.

wants high ethical standards and applies them in a social way.

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Legalism ultimately restored order and unified China

Focuses on the well being of the state, holistically, unlike Confuscianism

Encouraged military service or cultivation over other careers like educators and merchants

Harsh penalties for even minor infractions

Expected family members to report infractions and suffered penalty if found guilty of hiding the infraction

Believed that people are inherently bad

Legalism is about what serves the intereest of the state instead of COnfucianism and Daoism focues on the individual. The individuality of meaningless in legalism. In legalism the loyalty of a person is not to their family or friends but to the state.

Subordinates self interest to the interests of the state and has harsh punishments.

Example of legalism: Rudy Guiliana became mayor of NY he vowes to clean up crime or the Broken Window Theory.

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Five Pillars of Islam

Founded by Muhummad

It governed every Muslim’s everyday life

Of the Five Pillars, four concern practice (acts, deeds or endeavors) that adherents must fulfill (prayer, fasting, almsgiving, pilgrimage)

Part of the salvation for the religion of Islam

Muhammad's status as a merchant brough him in contact with Jews and Christians and they influenced him on his belief in only one god, Allah. He wanted to instruct his followers on his faith as well. He made a journy to Medina where he organized the communtiy called community of the faitful and named them Umma. He came up with the 5 Pillars of Islam, and also influenced the Ramadan and the Jihad as well. The 5 pillars governs Muslim's everyday life.

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Column 2

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Columbian Exchange

  • During the European Exploration and after the voyage of Columbus, the Columbian Exchange became the global diffusion of everything, which included plants, food crops, animals, human population, and diseases. The main disease was smallpox, which wiped out most of the native people, such as the Aztecs. Even though many people died, the population doubled because there was more food resulting in healthier people.

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  • These are large estates, which are self-sufficient communities owned by lords in Medieval Europe. They provided regional stability in the absence of an Empire. The lords controlled the government, administration, police services, and provided justice in the manors. The serfs, or the lower class people, provided all the labor.

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  • A massive plantation in the Roman Empire. The owners used slave labor to put the small farms out of business. This was only used by the wealthy people, which increased the poverty because the small farmers did not have as much income.

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  • These were the “conquerors” during the European Exploration who represented the European colonization, domination, and exploitation of the new world. A huge advantage they used was their superior technology, such as ships, instruments, and the volta do mar strategy, which is the “return through the sea.” A few of the greatest conquerors of this time were Cortes who defeated the Aztecs by inadvertently exposing them to smallpox, Pizarro who defeated the Incas by taking over the kingdom and by using horses for quick mobilization, and De Soto who took over the southern part of America and discovered the Mississippi River.

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Joint-Stock Companies

  • This was developed by the English and Dutch to limit risks to their investments during the European Exploration. The government supported these companies, and they formed a global trade network. Two examples of these companies are the English East Trade Company and the Dutch United East India Company.

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  • He is from the city of Ur, which was a polytheistic place, but he only believed in one God. He made a covenant with God that he would lead the Jews to Canaan, which was the promised land. He is known as the Father of Judaism.

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  • This is the Holy book of the Jews, which is what we know today as the Old Testament. This book came from Yahweh, and he would punish or reward the people based on how well they observed his commandments. This is the Orthodox’s text, which is less strict than the Talmud. The Torah does not stop the people from speaking the name of the Lord, which was restricted by the Talmud.

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  • *Justinian Code- Justinian was a Byzantium emperor, and he ordered a thorough review of Roman law. He codified it in the Corpus iuris civilis (Body of Civil law). It compiled early Roman laws and legal principles that were illustrated by cases. The Justinian Code influenced civil law codes throughout much of Western Europe *Grand Canal- It was build during the Sui dynasty and was the world’s largest waterworks project. It was built to facilitate trade between Northern and Southern China that were previously compartmentalized by the East and West Yellow and Yangzi River’s. This integrated economies of Northern and Southern China which established an economic foundation for the political and cultural unity and also made China more centralized

  • *Nirvana- It is known as the state of spiritual independence for Buddhism. The Buddhist believed that living this lifestyle will lead to personal salvation -- escape from the cycle of incarnation and the attainment of nirvana. It allowed Buddhism to be more appealing to the Indians and when you are in Nirvana you are liberated from suffering.

  • *Inca Roads- One of the Incas’ new technologies was roads, in which they built an all-weather highway system of over 16,000 miles. The invention of the roads allowed the Inca government to maintain centralized control by moving military forces around the empire quickly, transporting food supplies where needed, and tying the widespread territories together. The government had runners positioned at convenient intervals to deliver government messages.

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  • *De Gama- De Gama reached India in 1498 by sailing around the Cape of Good Hope from Portugal. He opened the door to maritime trade between Europe and Asian people and helped establish permanent links between the worlds’ various regions. De Gama served as a representative of all the European explorers, by opening up the door to finding the new lands around the world.

  • *Trans-Sahara Trade Route- the Trans- Sahara trade was used by kings to obtain items and to bring back to the people to sell and make money. Timbuktu and GAO was major terminus along the route in which Mansa Musa expanded Mali’s influence. Mansa Musa brought wealth through their economy and the trade route also assisted in the advancement of the Islam religion.

  • *Plato- Plato was a disciple of Socrates who builds on Socrates views by developing his own systematic vision of the world and human society that were known as the theory of forms or ideas. Plato became frustrated that he couldn’t gain intellectual control over the world, and he also had the less intelligent classes work at functions for which their talents best suited them. Plato ideas about the abstract nature alienated another Greek philosopher, Aristotle, who rebelled against Plato views. Plato wrote the Republic which detailed the ideal state in which role was accomplished by philosophy King.