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The Importance of Information Systems Management. Chapter 1 Information Systems Management In Practice 7E McNurlin & Sprague. PowerPoints prepared by Michael Matthew Visiting Lecturer, GACC, Macquarie University – Sydney Australia. Chapter 1.

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the importance of information systems management

The Importance of Information Systems Management

Chapter 1

Information Systems Management In Practice 7E

McNurlin & Sprague

PowerPoints prepared by Michael Matthew

Visiting Lecturer, GACC, Macquarie University – Sydney Australia

chapter 1
Chapter 1
  • This lecture / chapter traces the growing importance of information systems management and presents a conceptual model to show the key areas, how they fit together, and the principal issues for CIOs in each area
  • It sets up the context for the book:
    • First by describing today’s business organizational and technical environment
    • Second by describing a framework for viewing the work of the IS organization; and
    • Third by describing an IS organization’s evolution from 1985 to present
  • MeadWestvaco, described from the mid-1980s to the present, is a case example of how these areas are being implemented in an IS organization
today s lecture
Today’s Lecture
  • Introduction
  • A Little History
  • The Organizational Environment
    • External Business Environment
    • Internal Organizational Environment
    • Goals of the New Work Environment
  • The Technology Environment
    • Hardware Trends
    • Software Trends
    • Data Trends
    • Communication Trends
today s lecture cont
Today’s Lecture cont.
  • The Mission of Information Systems
  • A Simple Model
  • A Better Model
    • The Technologies
    • The Users
    • Systems Development and Delivery
    • IS Management
  • Organization of this Unit / Book
  • Case example – MeadWestvaco Corporation
  • (Finally) Information Technology (IT) -computers and telecommunications - is having the kind of revolutionary, restructuring impact that has been expected and promised for years
  • Rapid advances in speed and capacity + pervasiveness of Internet, wireless, portable devices etc. = making major changes in the way we live and work
  • ‘Go Back’ – 5, 10, 15 years
introduction cont
Introduction cont.
  • Due to the growth and pervasiveness of IT, organizations are operating in a different environment from just a few years ago
  • Themes this unit emphasizes:
    • Globalization
      • The world seems to be getting smaller
      • Backlash – local needs Vs. ‘standard’
      • Jobs to stay ‘local’
      • IS executives need ‘balancing act’
    • E-enablement
      • Internet has become a hub for conducting business
      • Interconnectivity plus!
    • Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Management
      • Between people
      • Out of people’s heads and into ‘lasting’ things e.g. systems, policies and procedures etc.
introduction cont7
Introduction cont.
  • Management of Information Systems
    • 3 Major Trends
    • Governance of IT = a collaborative effort from IS executives and all other members of Senior Management
    • Role of IS is shifting from application delivery to system integration and infrastructure development
    • Outsourcing – total / selective
      • Developing and managing contracts and relationships
introduction cont8
Introduction cont.
  • Historically, managing IT has been the job of ‘technical managers’
  • NOW = increasingly becoming an important part of the responsibilities of:
    • Senior executives
    • Line managers
    • Employees at all levels of an organization
the key what s it all about
The ‘Key’ (What’s it all about?)

Technology is configured into systems that help manage information to improve organizational performance

a little history
A Little History
  • U.S. passed from the industrial era to the information era as early as 1957
    • The number of U.S. employees whose jobs were primarily to handle information surpassed the number of industrial workers
  • In the late ’50s / ‘60s IT to support “information work” = largely non-existent (except telephone)
    • Information work = mostly done in general offices without much support from technology
      • People factories?
a little history cont
A Little History cont.
  • 70s = it all ‘started’ with many of the foundations of IT today invented and costs starting to fall
    • Typewriters, fax, ‘smaller’ computers
  • 1980s = number of US information workers surpassed the number in all other sectors (>50%)
a little history cont13
A Little History cont.
  • Information Technology:
    • Initially used to perform existing information work more quickly and efficiently
    • Then = used to manage work better
    • Now = well into the 3rd stage of technology assimilation
      • IT makes pervasive changes in the structure and operation of:
        • Work
        • Business practices
        • Organizations
        • Industries
        • The ‘Global Economy’ (=enabler?)
the organizational environment
The Organizational Environment
  • The way IT is used depends on the environment surrounding the organization that uses it
  • Simultaneously, technological advances affect the way IT is used
the organizational environment cont
The Organizational Environment cont.
  • The External Organizational Environment
    • IT allows information to move faster, thus increasing the speed at which events take place and the pace at which individuals and organizations respond to events.
    • The Internet Economy
      • B2C, B2B etc.
      • IT is a major underpinning of the way the ‘old’ and ‘new’ worlds interface
the organizational environment cont16
The Organizational Environment cont.
  • The External Organizational Environment cont.
    • Global Marketplace
      • The entire world has become the marketplace
      • The Internet allows companies to work globally
      • Globalization is a ‘two way street’
      • Internet allows small firms to have a global reach
      • Business environment is now global, but local tastes still matter
the organizational environment cont17
The Organizational Environment cont.
  • The External Organizational Environment cont.
    • Business Ecosystems
    • Decapitalization
      • Tangible items, such as capital, equipment and buildings were the tenets of power in the industrial age
      • Today = power of ‘intangibles’ such as ideas and knowledge
        • Managing talent = as important as e.g. managing finance
the organizational environment cont18
The Organizational Environment cont.
  • The External Organizational Environment cont.
    • Faster Business Cycles
      • Rely on IT
    • Accountability and Transparency
      • Rise and fall of dot-coms probably should have been expected
        • Many business plans could not make $$$
      • Debacle in Telco and business shenanigans have shaken investor confidence
        • Call for greater transparency of corporate operations and greater accountability of corporate officers
        • IT will play a significant role in implementing the ensuing regulations and fostering transparency
the organizational environment cont19
The Organizational Environment cont.
  • The External Organizational Environment cont.
      • Rising Societal Risks of IT
        • IT has negatively affected millions of people
          • Network shutdowns
          • Computer viruses
          • Identity theft
          • Email scams
          • Movement of white collar jobs offshore
        • Led to increasing calls for Government regulation and for vendors and corporations to take action
the organizational environment cont20
The Organizational Environment cont.
  • The Internal Organizational Environment

The work environment is also changing, and the art of managing people is undergoing significant shifts

    • From Supply-Push to Demand-Pull
      • ‘Old’
        • Companies did their best to figure out what customers wanted
        • Organized to build a supply of products or services and then ‘push’ them out to end customers on stores shelves, in catalogs etc.
      • ‘New’ (Internet)
        • Allows much closer and ‘one-to-one’ contact between customer and seller
        • Offer customers the components of a product/service then the customer creates their own version by ‘pulling’ what they want
the organizational environment cont21
The Organizational Environment cont.
  • The Internal Organizational Environment cont.
    • Self- Service
      • ATMs = early example
      • 1990s saw an increase in systems that let consumers access corporate computer systems to:
        • Learn about products
        • Purchase products
        • Inquire about orders
        • Communicate and ‘do business’ with the firm
      • Now = heaps e.g. FedEx parcel tracking
the organizational environment cont22
The Organizational Environment cont.
  • The Internal Organizational Environment cont.
    • Real-Time Working
      • Sales people have up-to-the-minute information about customers
      • Knowing e.g. inventory and cash levels as the are NOW – not as they were a week or a month ago
      • Being able to reach someone when you need them
        • Instant messaging?
    • Team-Based Working
      • Working together on projects
    • Anytime, Anyplace Information Work
the organizational environment cont23
The Organizational Environment cont.
  • The Internal Organizational Environment cont.
    • Outsourcing and Strategic Alliances
      • To become more competitive, organizations are examining types of work that should be done internally or externally by others
      • Ranges from a simple contract for services to a long-term strategic alliance
      • The thinking is: We should focus on what we do best and outsource the other functions to people who specialize in them
    • Note= not ‘new’ (especially in non-IT)
    • Also = some ‘backlash’
the organizational environment cont24
The Organizational Environment cont.
  • The Internal Organizational Environment cont.
    • The Demise of Hierarchy
      • Traditional hierarchical structure groups, several people performing the same type of work, overseen by a supervisor
        • No longer the most appropriate in factories or offices
      • Hierarchical structures cannot cope with rapid change
        • Communications up and down the chain of command takes too much time for today’s environment
      • IT enables team-based organizational structures by facilitating rapid and far-flung communication
      • Note: = some of the time. Still has its place in many organizations
goals of the new work environment
Goals of the New Work Environment
  • Leverage Knowledge Globally
    • Tap tacit knowledge by fostering sharing and supporting sharing through technology
    • Note: driving force is culture!
      • Happens through organizational pull (people needing help) rather than organizational push which overloads people with information
  • Organize for Complexity
goals of the new work environment cont
Goals of the New Work Environment cont.
  • Work Electronically
    • Taking advantage of the Internet and networks in general = 3rd major goal of enterprises today
      • Requires different organizing principles, management tenets, compensation schemes, structure etc.
      • Changes how organizations interact with others including customers
    • The microchip moved power within companies. Bandwidth moves power all the way to consumers
    • Will increase exponentially as bandwidth capability increases and costs decrease
  • Handle Continuous and Discontinuous Change
    • Fits and starts
the technology environment
The Technology Environment

IT enables advances in organizational performance.

  • Hardware Trends
    • ’50s – ’60s + - Batch processing predominant; on-line systems emerged later
    • Mid ’70s processing power began to move out of the central site (at the insistence of users!)
    • 1980s: Advent of personal computers
    • Client-Server computing: “Client” machine user interfaces with “Server” on the network holding the data and applications
    • Major current development = hand-held devices, wireless etc.
    • Further distribution beyond organizational boundaries to suppliers, customers etc.

The Technology Environment cont.

  • Software Trends
  • In 1960s = Improve the productivity of in-house programmers who created transaction processing systems
    • ‘Problem’ = memory $
  • Later, programming issues:
  • First = Modular and structured programming techniques
  • Then = Life cycle development methodologies and software engineering
    • Goal = Introduction of rigorous project management techniques

The Technology Environment cont.

  • Software Trends cont.
  • Prototyping: quick development of a mock-up
  • Purchasing software became viable alternative to in-house development
  • Paying attention to applications other than transaction processing
    • Decision support systems (DSS), report generation, database inquiry
  • End users develop their own systems

The Technology Environment cont.

  • Software Trends cont.
  • Push for ‘open systems’
    • Purchasers were tired of being “locked in” to proprietary software (or hardware)
  • 1990s – trend towards Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) e.g. SAP, PeopleSoft
    • Expensive and troublesome, especially for companies wanting to modify the ERP software to fit their ‘unique’ processes
    • A fundamental organizational change!

The Technology Environment cont.

  • Software Trends cont.
  • Like hardware, software is migrating to be network centric.
    • Web front ends to empower employees rather than replacing legacy systems
    • Looming change = move to Web Services – packages of code that each perform a specific function and have a URL
      • e.g FedEx parcel tracking, MacAfee's’ virus updates
    • The significance of Web Services is that it moves software and programming to being truly network centric – the network becomes the heart of the system, linking all Web Services

The Technology Environment cont.

  • Data Trends
    • At first = File management
      • Organizational techniques for files that served individual applications
    • Then = Corporate databases
      • Serving several applications
      • Led to concept of establishing a data administration function

The Technology Environment cont.

  • Data Trends cont.
    • ’70s = focus on Technical solutions
      • Database management systems
      • Dictionary/directory
      • Specification and format
      • Now = Data definitions: information about relationships among systems, sources and uses of data, and time cycle requirements
    • First 20 years: techniques to manage data in a centralized environment

The Technology Environment cont.

  • Data Trends cont.
  • Late ’70s / early ’80s = 4th generation languages and PCs:
    • Employees directly access corporate data
    • Users “demanded it”!
  • Also = Distributing data from data resources to information resources
    • Data management organizes internal facts into data record format
    • Information management focuses on concepts
      • Contains a much richer universe of digitized media including voice, graphics, animation and photographs (digitized media)

The Technology Environment cont.

  • Data Trends cont.
  • Managing this expanded array of information resources requires new technologies
    • Data warehousing
      • Stores huge amounts of historical (not ‘live’) data from systems such as retailers Point-Of-Sale systems
    • Data mining
      • Uses advanced statistical techniques to explore data warehouses looking for previously unknown relationships in data e.g which customers are the most profitable
  • Knowledge management (intellectual capital)
    • ‘New’ – The ‘Holy Grail’?
  • Web has broadened ‘data’ to mean ‘content’
    • Text, graphics, animation, maps, photos, video etc.
      • Now ‘tightly’ controlled Vs. early proliferation

The Technology Environment cont.

  • Data Trends cont.
  • Two major data issues are now facing CIOs:
    • Security – protecting data from those who should not see it
    • Privacy – safeguarding the personal data of employees, customers etc.
  • Regulations such as Sarbanes-Oxley in the U.S. now require company officers to verify their financial data
    • The processes that handle financial data are automated = need to document and ensure the accuracy of these processes

The Technology Environment cont.

  • Communications Trends
    • Final core technology = Telecommunications.
    • This area has (is?) experienced enormous change and is now taking ‘centre stage’
    • Early use = online and time-sharing systems
    • Then = interest in both public and private (intra-company) data networks blossomed
    • Internet = changed everything!
    • Today the Internet’s protocol has become the worldwide standard for LANs and WANs
      • Will also soon be the ‘standard’ for voice

The Technology Environment cont.

  • Communications Trends cont.
    • Telecom opened up new uses of IS so it became an integral component of IS management
      • Communications-based information systems link organizations to their suppliers and customers
    • Explosion of wireless
      • 2nd generation, instant messaging, Wi-Fi, 3rd generation (3G)
      • Doesn’t just enable mobility = changes how people communicate, how they live and how they work
the mission of information systems
The Mission of Information Systems
  • Early days: “paperwork factories” to pay employees, bill customers, ship products etc.
    • Objectives of information systems defined by productivity measures
  • Later = MIS era: produced reports for “management by exception” for all levels of management
  • Today = Improve the performance of people in organizations through the use of information technology
  • Improving organizational performance is accomplished by the people and groups that comprise the organization
    • One resource for this improvement is IT
the mission of information systems40
The Mission of Information Systems

The mission is to improve the performance of people in organizations through the use of information technology

a simple model fig 1 2
A Simple Model (Fig. 1-2)

In the early days of Information Systems, the ‘translation’ between IT and users was performed almost entirely by systems analysts

systems professionals bridging the technology gap fig 1 3
Systems Professionals Bridging the Technology Gap(Fig. 1-3)
  • Over the last 50 years technology has become increasingly complex and powerful
  • Users have become increasingly sophisticated
  • Information systems are now viewed as ‘products’ and users have become ‘customers’
  • More specialization is required of systems professionals to bridge this wider gap
users bridging the technology gap fig 1 4
Users Bridging the Technology Gap(Fig. 1-4)
  • Technology has become sophisticated enough to be used by many employees and consumers
  • Today, some of the technology is truly user-friendly, and some applications such as Web page development, database mining and spreadsheet manipulation, are handled by non-IT staff
  • Transaction systems, however, are still ‘developed’ by professional developers, either inside or outside the firm
why talk about the technology gap
Why talk about the ‘Technology Gap’?
  • The main point of this discussion is that technology is getting more complex, applications are becoming more sophisticated, and users are participating more heavily in the development of applications
  • The net result is that management of the process is becoming more complex and difficult as its importance increases
a better model fig 1 6
A Better Model (Fig 1-6)

Expanding the simple model gives us more guidance into managerial principles and tasks

We suggest a model with four principal elements:

A set of technologies that represent the IT infrastructure installed and managed by the IS department

A set of users who need to use IT to improve their job performance

A delivery mechanism for developing , delivering and installing applications

Executive leadership to manage the entire process of applying the technology to achieve organizational objectives and goals

1 the technologies
1. The Technologies
  • Several forces contribute to the increased importance and complexity of IT:
    • Growth in capacity + reduction in cost & size
    • Merging of previously separate technologies of computers, telephones/telecom/cable TV, office equipment and consumer electronics
    • Ability to store and handle multiple forms of data
  • Information systems now fill major roles in management reporting, problem solving and analysis, office support, customer service and communications
2 the users
2. The Users



Note: the distinction between manager and worker is blurring!

3 system development and delivery
3. System Development and Delivery
  • Systems development and delivery bridge the gap between technology and users
  • Systems for procedure-based (clerical) activities differ from systems for knowledge based information work (managerial)
  • Systems are built based on technology resources. Three main categories (essential technologies):
    • Hardware and software
    • Telecommunications
    • Information resources
  • Management of these is called infrastructure management
4 is management
4. IS Management
  • Chief Information Officer (CIO)
    • Must be high enough in the enterprise to influence organizational goals
    • Must have enough credibility to lead the harnessing of technology to pursue those goals
  • Must work with all the other CXOs
    • IT has become too important to be left to one individual
  • Executive team must work together to govern it and leverage it well
a better model summary
A Better Model - Summary
  • This model has four major components:
    • The technology – which provides the electronic and information infrastructure
    • Information workers who use IT to accomplish their work goals
    • System development and delivery – which brings the technology and users together
    • The management of the IS function
      • Overall responsibility = to harness IT to improve the performance of the people and the organization
organization of this book unit
Organization of this Book/Unit
  • Part I - Leadership
  • Part II - Technologies
  • Part III - Delivery
  • Part IV - Supporting work
  • Part V - Looking ahead
organization of this book unit cont
Organization of this Book/Unit cont.
  • Part I – Leadership
    • Chapters 2 - 4
    • Deals with the strategic issues that are the responsibility of the top systems executive – CIO
    • Chapter 2 = evolution of the IS function and the CIO’s job
    • Chapter 3 = strategic uses of IT
    • Chapter 4 = IS planning
organization of this book unit cont58
Organization of this Book/Unit cont.
  • Part II – Technologies
    • Chapters 5 – 8
    • Deals with the management of the essential information technologies
    • Distributed systems architecture
    • Building and managing telecommunications
    • Managing corporate information resources
    • Managing day-to-day operations
organization of this book unit cont59
Organization of this Book/Unit cont.
  • Part III – Delivery
    • Chapters 9 and 10
    • Deal with developing and delivering systems
    • Chapter 9 = describes:
      • The evolution of systems development, tools and approaches
      • The trend towards system integration, and
      • The growth of Internet-based development
    • Chapter 10 = discusses important issues in managing system development and delivery
organization of this book unit cont60
Organization of this Book/Unit cont.
  • Part IV - Supporting work
    • Chapters 11 – 13
    • Discuss different types of systems that support knowledge work
    • Chapter 11 looks at using IT to support decision making
    • Chapter 12 discusses systems that support collaborative work
    • Chapter 13 looks at supporting knowledge work
organization of this book unit cont61
Organization of this Book/Unit cont.
  • Part V - Looking ahead
    • Chapter 14
    • Looks at the future
a final thought
A ‘Final Thought’

“It is not the strongest species that

survive, nor the most intelligent,

but the ones responsive to change”

- Charles Darwin