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Reducing Handover Delay in Next Generation Wireless Networks. Linoh A. Magagula & H. Anthony Chan. Presentation outline. Introduction Background Problem Statement Objectives Methodology Conclusion. WiMax. UMTS. IEEE 802.11. GPRS. Introduction.

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Presentation Transcript
presentation outline
Presentation outline
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Problem Statement
  • Objectives
  • Methodology
  • Conclusion
introduction

WiMax

UMTS

IEEE 802.11

GPRS

Introduction
  • NGWN  integration of heterogeneous but complimentary wireless access networks
  • Convergence over IP based infrastructure
    • Interwork & interoperate

IP Backbone

slide4
NGWN provide ubiquitous network access
    • Anywhere, anytime
    • mobile users exploit a variety of access networks to meet their requirements, e.g. charging, QoS, etc.
  • Operators may
    • Offer compelling value-added services
    • Improve network capacity
    • Improve availability of services

 Serve a wider set of users

Happy network users

slide5
Challenge to the All-IP vision

 vertical handover performance for ongoing real-time

services continuous network access required

during handover

      • High handover delay disrupts service continuity hence degrades perceived quality of communication of active connections

reduce handover delay (optimize

delay transparency)

slide6

IP configuration

(CoA/DAD)

Binding

Update

Movement detection

Discovery

Authentication

  • Handover delay: period of time that a handover procedure takes to complete
    • L2 and L3 delays
    • L2 delay is link technology specific
    • L3 delay can be reduced/optimized globally
      • Can not be avoided but can be optimized/reduced

Handover delay

background problem statement
Background & Problem Statement
  • Various mobility management (MM) protocols proposed at different protocol stack layers to provide connection transparency, e.g.
    • Link layer MM protocols, SCTP, SIP, MIP, etc.
  • Various drawbacks, particularly in terms of handover,e.g.
    • MM protocols maintain mobility binding (reachability state)
      • bindings cannot seamlessly transfer & continue ongoing sessions without disruptions
    • Handover trigger based on signal strength
background problem statement1
Background & Problem Statement
  • No network selection & handover initiation capabilities
  • Dependent on reactive manipulations of handover process, e.g.
    • Handover initiated when network change is detected @ IP layer
  • High handover delay
  • Not suitable for NGWN in their current form
    • Additional mechanisms required to enhance handover performance
towards handover delay reduction in ngwn

Internet

HA

CN

IP backbone

Domain gateways

AR

AP

L2 mobility

MN

Micro-mobility

Macro-Mobility

Towards handover delay reduction in NGWN
  • MIPv6 widely accepted MM protocol for NGWN
  • Inherently very long handover delay
  • To improve handover performance: split MM
    • Global (macro)
    • Localized (micro)
slide10

Domain gateway

Tunnel

Route or

Binding Update

AR

Movement

  • Example Localized MM protocols
    • HMIPv6, Cellular IP, HAWAAI, etc.
    • Fast handover protocols, FMIPv6 proactive registration to reduce handover delay
    • Host-based
slide11
Utilization of L2 triggers/hints to enhance L3 handover procedure
    • Expense MIPv6 has to be dependent on underlying L2 technology hints not standardized
  • Various other works have been done to improve handover performance & network selectivity. However,
    • Handover delay still high for real time services
    • Handover (network) selectivity without impacting on handover delay is still a challenge
objectives
Objectives
  • To develop an intelligent architectural framework to improve vertical handover performance for real-time services
    • Reduce IP handover delay
      • To avoid perceptible service disruptions
    • Make faster & accurate network selectivity before handover
      • Perform optimal network selection among heterogeneous access networks in a short time scale
  • Investigate and evaluate tradeoffs (cost benefits)
methodology

LMA

Route or

Binding Update

Tunnel

MAG

Movement

Methodology
  • Intelligent synthesis of a network-based MM scheme (PMIPv6) and a technology-aware handover mechanism over a cross-layer design architectural framework
slide14

MIH Users

Upper Layers (L3 and above)

IP

SIP

MIPv6

Applications

Commands

Information

Events

Service Access Point (SAP)

MIH FUNCTION

Link-specific SAPs

Events

Commands

Information

LINK LAYERS

(802.11, 802.16, 802.3, 3GPP, 3GPP2)

  • Utilization of IEEE802.21 MIH services enhance handover performance
  • MIES
    • Report dynamically changing lower layer events to upper layers
  • MICS
    • Enable MIH users to manage & control link behaviour related to mobility & handovers
  • MIIS
    • Facilitate network selection & effective handover decisions
      • Provide information about services & characteristics of neighbourhood
slide15

Internet

CN

LMA

Info. server

MIH

MAG3

MIH

MAG1

MAG2

PoA

MIH

MIH

PoA

PoA

MIH

MN

  • MN & AR utilize MIH  updating & retrieval of information elements (info/MIIS server)
  • included
    • General info. & access network specific info. (e.g. cost, Qos, security, etc)
    • PoA specific info. (e.g. CoA, data rates, MAC addr., etc)
    • Stable IDs for attached MNs
    • Authentication information
    • Dynamic information
    • Each MAG up-to-date about surroundings
slide16
Information exchange done before hand
    • Proactive signalling deliberations
  • PMIPv6 domain under single administrative management  maintenance of info. server very feasible
slide17
Cross-layer design architectural framework to further improve handover performance
    • Protocol layers adapt & collaborate to optimize handover performance
      • Provision of faster signalling for network selection decision and handover initiation support
      • Handover delay is jointly optimized
    • facilitate relevant decision algorithms to react to corresponding handover-causing (initiation) scenarios for fast & accurate handover decisions
slide18
Any available network
    • Forced handover due to deteriorating signal strength or loss of resources
    • Parameters: RSS, battery power, resources, etc.
  • Best convenient network
    • Unforced handover mainly due to user preferences
    • Parameters: cost, available services, etc.
  • Active service-related handover
    • real-time & multimedia services
    • Parameters: network latency, data rate, QoS, etc.
analysis of handover delay reduction

New connection ready

LMA

DQ2

DR2

AAA/ Policy store

DPBU

DPBA

DQ

DR

MAG

DATTACH

DRA

MN

time

Handover delay

Analysis of handover delay reduction
  • Typical PMIPv6 handover delay:
  • Attachment notification delay, DATTACH
  • Authentication delay, MAGMN, DAUTH
    • DAUTH = DQ + DR
  • Authentication delay, MAGLMA, DAUTH_2
    • DAUTH_2 = DQ2 + DR2
slide20
Proxy Binding delay, MAGLMA,DBINDING
    • DBINDING = DPBU + DPBA
  • Router Advertisement delay, MGAMN, DRA
  • IP configuration delay, DCONFIG→0when MN is already in PMIPv6 domain per-MN-prefix
  • Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) delay, DDAD≈ 0when MN is already in PMIPv6 domain
  • Total handover delay
    • DPMIPv6=DATTACH+DAUTH+DAUTH_2+DBINDING+DRA
ieee802 21 enabled pmipv6

IP backbone

CN

LMA

Info. server

MIH

MAG3

MIH

MAG1

MAG2

PoA

MIH

MIH

PoA

PoA

MIH

MN

IEEE802.21-enabled PMIPv6
  • During MN handover, new MAG would already know about attaching MN from relevant information element in server

 DATTACH ≈ 0

  • MN authenticated “before hand” when first discovered in information server

 DAUTH →0

 DAUTH_2 →0

  • Hence, handover delay in our proposed scheme becomes
    • DPMIPv6_802.21=DBINDING+DRA
conclusion
Conclusion
  • A handover delay reduction mechanism is proposed
  • Future work
    • Experimental evaluations through simulations
      • NS-2 and/or OPNET
  • Performance evaluation
    • Comparison with standardized fast handover schemes, e.g. FMIPv6
    • Comparison with standard performance requirements for real time traffic
publications
Publications
  • Papers accepted for publications
    • SATNAC 2008 (South Africa, September): Optimized Handover Delay in Proxy Mobile IPv6 using IEEE 802.21 MIH Services
    • WiMOB 2008 (Avignon, France, October): IEEE 802.21-assisted Cross-Layer Design and PMIPv6 Mobility Management Framework for Next Generation Wireless Networks
    • MILCOM 2008 (San Diego, USA, November): IEEE 802.21 Optimized Handover Delay for Proxy Mobile IPv6
    • BroadCom 2008 (Pretoria, South Africa, November): Delay Transparency for Real Time services in PMIPv6