OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY M.ARUN KUMAR., B.O.T., OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST MERF Institute of Speech and Hearing
Take a moment to think of some of the things (occupations) you have done today... • have you had a shower, • had lunch with friends, • or gone to work? Now imagine this...
HOW WOULD YOU… • You had poor balance? • You couldn’t reach your arms up to your hair? HAVE A SHOWER IF…
HOW WOULD YOU… • You couldn’t hold a fork? • You couldn’t remember where to meet them? • You just couldn’t cope with getting out of bed? HAVE LUNCH WITH FRIENDS IF…
HOW WOULD YOU… • You had pain in your back? • You heard voices in your head? • You had arthritis in your hands? GO TO WORK IF…
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY Is the assessment and treatment of physical and psychiatric conditions, using specific purposeful activity to prevent disability and promote independent function in all aspect of daily life.
Who do Occupational Therapists work with? Children Seniors Adolescents Adults
Hospitals Schools Mental Health Facilities Home Care Personal Care Homes Private Clinics Rehabilitation Centers Community Health Centers Insurance Companies Client Homes Client Work Places Where do Occupational Therapists work?
Occupational Therapists are concerned with: • Person, Environment Occupation Interactions
POPULATION HEALTH OCCUPATION OP ENVIRONMENT PERSON
HUMANS AS OCCUPATIONAL BEINGS – PEOP MODEL PERSON (Intrinsic Factors) ENVIRONMENT (Extrinsic Factors) OCCUPATION Social Support Physiological Social & Economic Systems Cognitive PERFORMANCE Occupational Performance & Participation Spiritual Culture & Values Built Environments & Technology Neurobehavioral Natural Environments Psychological WELL BEING QUALITY OF LIFE
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY SERVICES FOR INFANTS AND CHILDREN Pediatric occupational therapy is skilled treatment aimed to enable the child to be as physically psychologically and socially independent as possible.
HOW DO THEY WORK Occupational therapists works in close partnership with…. • Medical Team • Educational Team • Community Team • Family Together they have a shared responsibility for meeting children’s needs.
MULTIPLE DISABILITY When child has several different disabilities we say, that He/She has multiple disability • Multiplication of disability • 50% cerebral palsy – visual deficit • 13% cerebral palsy – auditory deficit • Mental retardation
SOME EXAMPLES OF MULTIPLE DISABILITIES ARE: • Deafblind (Visual impairment + hearing impairment) • Visual impairment + hearing impairment + mental retardation. • Visual impairment + mental retardation. • Cerebral palsy + mental retardation / hearing / speech / visual problems.
Hearing / Listening • Vision / Looking • Touch • Smell • Taste • Movement • Sensory integration • Cognitive • Social
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS: Movement of the large muscles in the arms, and legs. Abilities like • Rolling • Crawling • Walking • Running • Jumping • Hopping • Skipping
FINE MOTOR SKILLS: Movement and dexterity of the small muscles in the hand and fingers. Abilities like • In-hand manipulation • Reaching • Carrying • Shifting small objects
SENSORY INTEGRATION Sensory processing Ability like • Vestibular • Proprioceptive • Tactile • Visual • Auditory • Gustatory • Olfactory skills
Academic Intellect Learning cognition Daily Living Behavior Activities Auditory Attention Visual- Perceptual Language Special Development Center Perception Skills Functions Motor Ocular Postural Eye-hand Motor Adjustment Coordination Control Development Sensory Reflex Ability to Body Scheme Screen Input Maturity Motor Awareness of Postural Motor Planning Two Sides of Body Security Systems Sensory Olfactory Auditory Gustatory Visual Proprioception Tactile Vestibular CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
COGNITIVE PERCEPTUAL SKILLS: • Abilities like • Attention • Concentration • Memory • Thinking • Reasoning • Problem solving • Concept of shape • Size and color
VISUAL MOTOR SKILLS: Perception of visual information Abilities like copying MOTOR PLANNING SKILLS: Ability to Plan Implement Sequence motor tasks.
ORAL MOTOR SKILLS: Movement of muscles in the • Mouth • Lips • Tongue • Jaw • Sucking • Biting • Chewing • Blowing • Licking
PLAY SKILLS: Age appropriate purposeful play skills SOCIO-EMOTIONAL SKILLS: Ability to interact with peers and others.
ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING: Self – care skills like daily • Dressing • Feeding • Bathing • Grooming • Toilet tasks
ENVIRONMENT MANIPULATION Like handling • Switches • Door knobs • Phones • TV remote
HUMANS AS OCCUPATIONAL BEINGS – PEOP MODEL CHILD (Intrinsic Factors) ENVIRONMENT (Extrinsic Factors) OCCUPATION Social Support Physiological Social & Economic Systems Cognitive PERFORMANCE Occupational Performance & Participation Spiritual Culture & Values Built Environments & Technology Neurobehavioral Natural Environments Psychological WELL BEING QUALITY OF LIFE
Case Example Profoundly deaf, identified at 11 months Developmental history of hypotonia, tactile defensiveness, motor overflow, poor eye contact. Slow learning rate, limited social interaction with peers Referred by preschool teacher
On observation Reduced proprioceptive perception Weak bilateral coordination and motor planning Reduce proximal trunk stability Avoidance of crossing midline
Therapy Implementation Successive approximation based on motor complexity Increase visual and perceptual skill Model matching side by side Facilitate midline crossing Guidance and support of motor plan
Influence of sensory integration procedures on language development. Ayres AJ, Mailloux Z. Am J Occup Ther. 1981 Jun;35(6):383-90 The relationship between language development and sensory integration was explored through single case experimental studies of one female and three male aphasic children ranging in age from 4 years, 0 months to 5 years, 3 months. Three of the four children had received either speech therapy, special education specific to aphasia, or both, before starting occupational therapy. Inspection of rate of language growth before and after starting occupational therapy showed a consistent increase in rate of growth in language comprehensive concomitant with occupational therapy compared to previous growth rate.
Thank you • Comments and Questions?