CHAPTER 20 APUS HISTORY
European countries would be pleased to see the US break apart When the South left, they took control of everything they could April 12, 1861-April 19, 1865
LINCOLN’S INAUGURATION “Preserve the Union…” “Hold, occupy, and possess…” Physically speaking, we cannot separate” Lincoln was careful not to offend the border slave states Lower South saw it as a war message Major Issues? National debt? What about territories? Fugitive slaves?
FT. SUMTER Only two forts the Union still controlled: Ft. Pickens--Pensacola, Florida Ft. Sumter--Charleston, South Carolina Abe Lincoln sent supplies to Ft. Sumter The South fired War started on April 12th, 1861 Ft. Sumter had to surrender to Confederates Lincoln calls for 75,000 militiamen (volunteers) and so many came they had to turn some away
South saw the call for volunteers as Lincoln waging war of aggression on the Confederacy Four states will secede and leave the Union Montgomery, AL First capital of the Confederacy Richmond, VA Second capital of the Confederacy Virginia Arkansas Tenn. NC
THE BORDER STATES The Border States included: Missouri Delaware Maryland West Virginia Kentucky Border States were slave states, but did not secede with the South Had a white population more than the Confederacy Lincoln knew he had to have the Border States to win The mountain area of Virginia didn’t want to be part of the South, so with the help of Lincoln, they seceded from Virginia and created West Virginia “I hope to have God on our side, but I must have Kentucky”
“Butternut Region” Composed of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois Supported slavery , but fought for the North b/c the war was to preserve the Union Early on Lincoln kept saying he was fighting the war to preserve the Union
CIVIL WAR FAMILIES Families were split apart Example: John Crittenden of KY had two sons, one fought for the Union and the other fought for the Confederacy
SOUTHERN ADVANTAGES Fighting a defensive war Didn’t have to win Fighting for a way of life and self-determination Had the best leaders Southerners know how to fight Indians tended to be for the South Slaves were an advantage and disadvantage
NORTHERN ADVANTAGES 3/4THS OF THE NATIONS WEALTH 3/4THS OF THE NATION’S RAILROADS HAD THE NAVY HAD THE POPULATION HAD IMMIGRANTS 90% OF ARMY WAS VOLUNTEERS 10% OF ARMY WILL BE BLACK BEST POLITICAL LEADERS
POWER OF COTTON? South counted on foreign aid from England or France, but didn’t get it Leaders in Europe wanted South to win, but working people wanted North to win North stocked up on cotton and Europe started buying from other places King Cotton was replaced by King Wheat and King Corn b/c of Cyrus McCormick and John Deere COTTON IS NOT KING!!!
FOREIGN ISSUES Trent Affair Union ship stopped British ship Trent and removed 2 Confederate diplomats Lincoln released the diplomats saying “One war at a time” The Alabama Most famous ship the South had Had sunk 64 Union ships Built in England England became the “unofficial” naval base of the Confederacy
FOREIGN ISSUES Laird Rams Two huge ships built by the British for the Confederacy Charles Francis Adams, grandson of John Adams, found out about this and told them if they sold them and sent them to the Confederacy it would be war The French While the North and South fight the war, France takes over Mexico Napoleon III sets up Maximillian on the throne of Mexico After the war was over, we tell France to get out of Mexico and they did Maximillian was killed by a Mexican firing squad
LINCOLN AND THE CONSTITUTION? Increased the size of the army without Congressional approval Gave $2 million from Treasury to three private citizens to fight the war Suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus “Supervised” voting in the Border States
RAISING ARMIES Northern Army called “Yankees” Southern Army called “Johnny Rebs” How did the North raise an Army? New York??? Volunteers--90% Conscription or draft How did the South raise an Army? Volunteers Conscription or draft “Robbed cradle and grave”
GETTING OUT OF THE ARMY? NORTH? SOUTH? Pay out $300 Find replacement--in the North they had bounties--paid to serve $1,000 Buy your way out Hire a substitute Slave owners with 20 or more slaves were exempt “A rich man’s war, but a poor man’s fight”
PAYING FOR THE WAR NORTH SOUTH Increased taxes--tried new tax called income tax Printed money--Union money only worth .39 cents Borrowed money Raise taxes Print money--worth 1.6 cents per dollar
FINAL THOUGHTS South was devastated by the war--North more prosperous than ever before “Shoddy Millionaires” Civil War started an economic state called Millionaires. Most millionaires made their money honestly, but some cheated!
FAMOUS NAMES Elias Howe and Isaac Singer’s invention/perfection of sewing machine made clothes for Union soldiers Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell First female doctor Helped soldiers in the North Clara Barton Most famous nurse in the North Helped start the Red Cross Dorothea Dix Helped nurse soldiers in the North Sally Thompkins Famous female nurse in the South