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Applied and Industrial Microbiology PowerPoint Presentation
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Applied and Industrial Microbiology

Applied and Industrial Microbiology

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Applied and Industrial Microbiology

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  1. 28 Applied and Industrial Microbiology

  2. Industrial Microbiology - History • Lactic acid and ethanol from large-scale food fermentations • Armament-related chemicals such as glycerol and acetone during World Wars I & II • Antibiotics following World War II • Renewable feedstocks now • Traditional & new biotechnology: recombinant DNA technology

  3. Fermentation Technology • Industrial fermentation vs. Physiological fermentation • Anaerobic → Aerobic • Microbial, plant, and animal cells

  4. Bioreactors • Type: many different designs, most widely used CSTR • Size: small to large e.g. 500,000 liters • Operation: batch or continuous

  5. Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor Figure 28.10

  6. Microbial Metabolites • Primary metabolites: growth associated • Secondary metabolites

  7. Primary Fermentation Figure 28.11a

  8. Secondary Fermentation Figure 28.11b

  9. Strain Improvement • Traditional methods: UV, X rays, chemical mutagen • Modern technology

  10. Immobilization Technology • Immobilized enzymes vs. traditional chemical process • Immobilized cells: continuous flow processes • Materials used fro immobilization

  11. Immobilized Cells Figure 28.12

  12. Industrial Products • Amino acids • Citric acid • Enzymes • Vitamins • Antibiotics • Steroids • Etc. UN 28.1

  13. Amino Acids • L-glutamate (glutamic acid) → MSG (monosodium glutamate): flavor enhancer • Lysine and methionine: cereal food (feed) supplements • Phenylalanine and aspartic acid (L-aspartate): ingredients in the sugar-free sweetener aspartame

  14. Citric Acid • Original source: oranges and lemons • Product of mold (Aspergillus niger) metabolism after World War I • Use: giving tartness and flavor to foods, antioxidant and pH adjuster in many foods, emulsifier in dairy products

  15. Enzymes • Amylase • Glucose isomerase • Proteases • Rennin • Etc. Table 28.6 • Use: food industry, laundry detergent, clinical use…

  16. Vitamins • Vitamin B12 • Riboflavin • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

  17. Pharmaceuticals • Antibiotics: mold or streptomycete • Vaccines: antiviral (chicken eggs or cell culture), antibacterial (growth of bacteria), subunit (recombinant DNA technology) vaccines • Steroids: cortisone, estrogens, progesterone, conversion of sterol to steroids

  18. Biological Leaching of Copper Ores Figure 28.14a

  19. Microorganisms as products • Baker’s yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae • Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium • Insect pathogen: Bacillus thuringiensis

  20. Alternative Energy Sources Using Microorganisms Bioconversion Biomass Methane or ethyl alcohol Figure 28.15

  21. The Future Of Industrial Microbiology • Foods • Fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals • Renewable energy and chemical sources (shortage of fossil fuel) • Genetic engineering and Metabolic engineering