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Two Technical Advances in Wet Chemical Scrubbing Technology. Richard Hanson MA MEng CEng MIChemE ERG (Air Pollution Control) Ltd. Introduction | Two Technical Advances. V-tex TM technology Development Process Description Applications and Case studies Zero-effluent scrubbers

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two technical advances in wet chemical scrubbing technology

Two Technical Advances in Wet Chemical Scrubbing Technology

Richard Hanson MA MEng CEng MIChemE

ERG (Air Pollution Control) Ltd

introduction two technical advances
Introduction | Two Technical Advances
  • V-texTM technology
    • Development
    • Process Description
    • Applications and Case studies
  • Zero-effluent scrubbers
    • Process Description
    • Applications and Case Study
  • Summary
v tex tm development
V-texTM| Development
  • Developed in UK by AEA Technology
  • Used in difficult applications
    • reliability and performance
    • Eg. nuclear industry
  • V-texTM technology used in
    • Scrubbing
    • Stripping
    • Distillation
    • Mixing
v tex tm development4
V-texTM| Development
  • V-texTM Scrubbing
    • Since early 1990s in UK and Ireland
    • Mid-late 1990s in USA
    • More than 400 systems installed
  • Technology is now owned by ERG
  • What is it…?
v tex tm process description
V-texTM | Process Description
  • Key features
    • V-texTM chamber
    • Tangential gas inlet
    • Opposed jet spray nozzle
    • Intense mixing
    • Central gas outlet
v tex tm process description6
V-texTM | Process Description
  • Opposed jet self-cleaning spray nozzle
  • Fine droplet spray pattern
  • Induced swirl from tangential gas flow
  • Typical droplet size 100-200 μm
  • Large surface area for mass transfer
v tex tm process description7
V-texTM | Process Description
  • Mass transfer models
  • Traditional packed towers
    • Tower diameter = f (gas rate)
    • Efficiency = f (packed height) = f (HTU)
    • HTU = f (packing type, liquor rate, gas rate)
  • V-texTM
    • Chamber diameter = f (gas rate)
    • Efficiency = f (liquor rate, liquor pressure)
v tex tm implications of transfer model
V-texTM | Implications of transfer model

(1) Non-clogging

  • No packing to foul
  • Applications for dirty gas/liquor
  • Scrubbing with slurries
  • Reliable performance, lower maintenance, guaranteed efficiency
v tex tm implications of transfer model9
V-texTM | Implications of transfer model

(2) Significantly reduced vessel height

  • High pseudo-Kga values
  • Intense mixing, high turbulence
  • Gas residence time reduced approx x10 for same scrubbing efficiency
v tex tm implications of transfer model10

7.4 m

2.2 m

V-texTM | Implications of transfer model
  • Example:
    • 1000 m3/hr air
    • HCl removal efficiency 99.5%

ERG Packed

Tower Scrubber

V-texTM

Scrubber

v tex tm case studies
V-texTM | Case studies
  • Cl2 scrubbing
    • Chemical industry
    • Chlorine scrubbing from process air stream
    • NaOCl by-product for sale
v tex tm case studies12
V-texTM | Case studies
  • HCl scrubbing
    • Pharmaceutical industry
    • Hastelloy C276 and ECTFE/PTFE
    • Pressure and explosion rating certified
    • >99.5% HCl removal efficiency, batch scrubbing
v tex tm case studies13
V-texTM | Case studies
  • Reactive gas scrubbing + particulate removal
    • Optical Fibre Manufacturer
    • Removal of HCl and SiO2
    • Scrub liquor contained up to 5% weight SiO2 with no blockage
    • Constant back pressure improved optical fibre quality
v tex tm case studies14
V-texTM | Case studies
  • Multi-component contaminants
    • Tobacco Manufacturer
    • Steam quench/sub-cooling with NH3, VOC and dust scrubbing
    • Scrub liquor contained entrained dust – unsuitable for packed tower
  • SO2 scrubbing ex-incinerator
    • 12,000Am3/hr with 5,000mg/m3 SO2
    • Lime slurry scrubbing
    • >99.8% removal SO2
zero effluent process description
Zero-Effluent | Process Description
  • Vacuum evaporation: application to scrubbing
    • Established technology
    • Process application innovation
    • System integration – optimisation of capital and operating costs
    • Minimises water usage and effluent disposal
  • Simplified flowsheet
    • Evaporator/condenser circuit, heat pump circuit, effluent circuit
zero effluent process description17
Zero-Effluent | Process Description
  • Typical Scrubber blowdown 500 litre/hr  < 40 litre/hr concentrated sludge waste + recovery of > 460 litre/hr process water to system
  • Operation at 5kPa and 40oC
  • Typically 0.15kW per litre water evaporated
zero effluent case study
Zero-Effluent | Case study
  • Aerospace industry
  • Chromic acid scrubber
  • 200 litre/hr treatment rate
  • 200 g/litre CrO3 commodity recovery
  • Return on investment = 9 months
zero effluent applications
Zero-Effluent | Applications
  • High water/effluent costs and low energy costs
  • Feedstock, product and by-product recovery
  • Minimised loading for RO and ion-exchange treatment plants
summary
Summary
  • Innovations in Scrubbing technology
  • V-texTM
    • Solid-laden gas/liquor applications
    • Space limitations
  • Zero-effluent
    • Feedstock/product recovery
    • Utility optimisation