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G53SRP: Hardware interfacing PowerPoint Presentation
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G53SRP: Hardware interfacing

G53SRP: Hardware interfacing

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G53SRP: Hardware interfacing

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  1. G53SRP: Hardware interfacing Chris Greenhalgh G53SRP

  2. Contents • PC/bus architecture • Device registers • I/O instructions • High-level language support • Device register interaction • Bit-wise operators (review) • Interrupts • High-level language support • Java, RTSJ Java and C • Book: Burns & Wellings 15.1, 15.2, 15.5, 15.7, Wellings 15 intro & 15.3, plus a few extra bits :-)

  3. Typical PC architecture CPU VDU controller Keyboard controller System bus Businterface/ bridge Expansion bus (e.g. PCI, ISA,…) Disc controller General I/O Controller? memory disc Other hardware…

  4. Buses • Def. • "Common set of electrical connections" • Standard interface • control signals • address signals • data signals • Standard protocol (rules) • read cycle • write cycle • interrupt cycle (see notes on device programming)

  5. Example: CPU read cycle 0x394 (e.g.) Address (from CPU) Control: “read memory” (from CPU) Memory retrieves requested data Data (from memory) 0x45 (e.g.) Time

  6. Device registers • "Look" like memory • status registers (read) • control registers (write) • data buffer registers (read/write)

  7. I/O instructions • Memory mapped • (same physical & logical bus) • normal read/write instructions • E.g. Motorola 68000 MOVE.L reg,address • Separate I/O space • (separate physical or logical bus) • dedicated I/O instructions • E.g. Intel x86: IN reg, portOUT reg, port

  8. HLL register access • Requires either HLL functions which wrap these low-level operations E.g. • Linux kernel helper routines: void outb(unsigned char byte, unsigned int port);unsigned char inb(unsigned int port); • RTJavaRawMemoryAccess class • see over and memory areas notes

  9. RawMemoryAccess class package javax.realtime; public class RawMemoryAccess { public RawMemoryAccess( Object type, long base, long size); … public byte getByte(long offset); public intgetInt(long offset); public void setByte(long offset, byte value); public void setInt(long offset, int value); … } As for Physical memory areas Raw memory bytes Byte order platform dependent…

  10. HLL register access (2) • Or Ability to mix HLL and assembly language E.g. C/C++ • gcc: /*C…*/asm("movl %ecx %eax"); /*C…*/

  11. Register value manipulation (1) • The same location may have different functions • Setting other bits/registers may determine what register/function it actually has when accessed • Reading and writing may have different functions • Reading a status register vs writing to a completely different control register from/to same location => May need to maintain “shadow” control register values in code since cannot rely on reading values back

  12. Register value manipulation (2) • Registers often contain packed binary data • Minimise number of addresses required • Minimise rounds of communication • Requires extensive use of bit-manipulation operations in the driver…

  13. Java integer types

  14. C (default) integer types

  15. Hexadecimal (0x…) NB. Exactly 4 bits/digit

  16. Octal (0…) NB. Exactly 3 bits/digit

  17. Unary Bit-wise operators • ~ (bitwise complement)

  18. Bit-shift operators • << (left shift) • 0x1234 << 30001001000110100 base 2 • = 0x91A01001000110100000 base 2 • >> (right shift) • 0x1234 >> 30001001000110100 base 2 • = 0x02460000001001000110 base 2

  19. Binary bit-wise operators

  20. Interrupts • Device-initiated • I.e. asynchronous, external events • Controlled by device control registers • E.g. individually enabled & disabled • Managed by CPU • I.e. can be temporarily ignored under program control (See later notes)

  21. Approaches to device control • Status driven • CPU polls • Interrupt driven, i.e. interrupt from device initiates… • CPU controlled • All data transfer performed by (main) CPU • CPU initiated (Direct Memory Access) • Data transfer delegated to specialised helper unit • Channel controlled • Data transfer (perhaps also interrupt handling) delegated to specialised I/O processor (“channel”) (mainframe!)

  22. Note • Interrupts and DMA/channel IO can result in CPU cycles being “lost” or “stolen” from the main process(es) • Increases worst-case execution time(s) • May make process sets unschedulable • So interrupts are often disabled in safety critical systems • Rely on guaranteed scheduled polling rates

  23. HLL support for interrupts (1) • Interrupt handler: • Can call suitable procedures directly • E.g. C subroutine address registered as handler for low-level interrupt • Or requires some other way to bind HLL process to interrupt • E.g. RTSJ AsyncEventHandler for AsyncEvent with interrupt bound to HW Interrupt

  24. HLL support for interrupts (2) • Requires access to interrupt management operations • (again) inclusion of relevant machine code instructions • E.g. to set/clear interrupt enable bit • Or wrapper functions in HLL giving access to these • E.g. Linux C helper functions (set/clear interrupt enable bit)void sti(void);void cli(void); • Or other language-specific mechanisms • E.g. RTSJ priority-based scheduling of handlers, plus use of Java Synchronisation

  25. High-level language facilities • Assembly language • Low level!! • Java (non-RTSJ)… • RTSJ Java… • C…

  26. Non-RTSJ Java • Con: • No direct access to memory • No bit field types • No machine-specific I/O instructions • No link to hardware interrupts • No access to interrupt management • Difficult machine code integration • Fixed method prologues/epilogues • Unpredictable GC • Relatively heavy-weight classes/methods

  27. RTSJ Java • Con: • No bit field types • Difficult machine code integration (but shouldn’t need it?!) • Fixed method prologues/epilogues (but shouldn’t matter?!) • Relatively heavy-weight classes/methods • Pro: • Direct access to memory via API • Machine-specific I/O via API • Link to hardware interrupts via async. events • Access to interrupt management via scheduling • Alternative memory management options to control GC

  28. C • Pro: • Supports native pointers • Includes bit fields • (Relatively) easy inclusion of assembly • C procedure = machine code subroutine • Customisable prologue/epilogue • Con: • Lack of classes, GC, etc.

  29. Some example devices • simple joystick interface • 2001 exam, Q2 • printer interface • 2002 exam, Q1 • UART (serial line) • appendix A

  30. Summary (1) • PC/bus architecture interfaces to hardware via • Registers = virtual memory locations • Interrupts = asynchronous notifications from device • Device registers typically • Status of device/interface – read • Control of device – write • Data input/output – read/write • Accessed via custom I/O instructions or mapped memory access • RTSJ access via RawMemoryAccess

  31. Summary (2) • Interrupts allow more efficient/timely (non-polling) notification of CPU by device • RTSJ support via AsyncEvent bound to interrupt • Management via RTSJ scheduling facilities and Java synchronization • Non-RTSJ Java unsuitable for device interfacing • C suitable (e.g. Linux/UNIX device drivers)