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A2 PE. The beginning . Unit G453. This unit is worth 70% of your A2 mark. It consists of a 2 ½ hour exam Section A- Answer 1 question on either: Historical Studies Comparative Studies Section B- Answer 2 questions on either Sports Psychology Biomechanics Exercise and sports physiology.

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a2 pe


The beginning

unit g453
Unit G453
  • This unit is worth 70% of your A2 mark. It consists of a 2 ½ hour exam
  • Section A- Answer 1 question on either:
  • Historical Studies
  • Comparative Studies
  • Section B- Answer 2 questions on either
  • Sports Psychology
  • Biomechanics
  • Exercise and sports physiology
historical studies


A2 Unit G453

are you a historian putting your historical studies into context
Are you a historian? Putting your historical studies into context.

In your envelopes you have a list of dates and description. You have to pair the era with the description and put them in chronological order.

the past
The Past
  • How do we know what sport was like in the past?
  • What evidence is there to help us?
  • Pictures
  • Diaries
  • Accounts
  • Video footage
  • Drawings
  • Equipment
  • Word of mouth
  • Reports

Using the pictures and the video we have just watched, what do you think sport was like in 18th Century ?

  • What do you think some of the characteristics of sport in the 18th Century are?
development of popular recreation in the uk
Development of popular recreation in the UK
  • Pre industrial popular recreation reflected the society, life and time in which it existed.
  • Activities were often supported by a strict class system and different classes sometimes shared activities e.g. cock fighting or took part in different activities e.g. peasants mob football and tennis for the upper class.
  • The role and attitude of the church had a big impact on the development of sport. Puritanism
  • Life as an 18th C peasant was tough and sport and past times echoed this harshness e.g. baiting and blood sports.
  • The pub was central to village life and was the focus for leisure activities e.g. dog fighting. Landlords often provided prizes for sporting matches and primitive equipment for ball games in order to simulate interest and more importantly to boost profit.
characteristics and cultural influences
Characteristics and cultural influences


Lack of technology, purpose built facilities and money for the masses


Limited transport and communications


A chance to go from rags to riches (for poor) or to show off (for rich)

Simple, unwritten rules

Illiteracy, no NGBs, only played locally

Characteristics of PR

Cultural factors that influenced their development


Work often became the basic of sport


Reflecting the harshness of eighteenth-century rural life


Before the Industrial Revolution, Britain was agricultural and rural


Pre-industrial Britain was predominantly a 2 class society, based on the feudal system.


Free time for recreation on Holy days and annual holidays e.g. shrove Tuesday


In the 18thC , life was cheap, mortality rates were high and public hangings a spectator attraction, so displays of merciless cruelty in the name of entertainment and sport were common.

  • How can we link these characteristics to the 5 case studies?
linking to the case studies
Linking to the case studies
  • Bathing and swimming
  • In the middle ages towns were built at defensive sites and rive crossing points.
  • Bathing for pleasure was common especially on hot summer days.
  • As well as somewhere to bath the river provided a supply of food, a means of transport and somewhere to wash.
  • The English aristocracy of the middle ages considered the ability to swim as part of their chivalric code. They would sometimes sponsor outstanding lower class swimmer to represent them in wager races (Patron).


  • Games were held at fairs and village wakes during annual holidays such as the Cotswold games and the Much Wenlock Olympian Games.
  • A traditional wake was a great social occasion bringing all parts of the community together.
  • These events included drinking, blood sports and men had the opportunities to test their strength and prove their speed and virility in events such as stick fighting, wrestling and running.
  • Pedestrianism- was seen as a way of enhancing a gentleman’s social status. A few professional athletes in the sport which were promoted by the gentry patron. This usually attracted large crowds.
  • Robert Barclay Allardice walked 1000miles in 1000 hours

Football- mob games

  • These were often lively, rowdy, violent and occasionally encountered between neighbouring villages, mob football is without doubt the best example of pop rec.
  • Early mob football was played in restricted city streets as well as in the country side.
  • Shrove Tuesday became a traditional day for mob games and an opportunity for fun and excitement before the serious of Lent.
  • Mob games had a lack of:
  • Rules
  • Positions
  • Pitch
  • Referee
  • Skilfulness


  • From the early 18th C village cricket was played.
  • The social classes played together reflecting the feudal or class structure of the village.
  • Early club emerged from these rural village sides.
  • Interest and patronage by the gentry led to the early standardisation of rules which was different to other games around at that time.
  • Its rules could be locally adapted.
  • The game was developed from 1750 in the pub called “The Bat and Ball Inn”.
  • It attracted widespread wagering
  • It was played by both males and females
  • It was predominantly rural


  • It originated in France and became popular during the 14th C.
  • It was an exclusive game for kings, nobles and merchants who played on purpose built high sophisticated courts.
  • It had complex rules and required high levels of skill.
  • The lower class also had their versions of tennis known as handball , fives and racquets which were often played against church or pub walls.
  • Lawn tennis had not been invented yet.
factors affecting participation in
Factors affecting participation in

Participation affected by ………






  • In pre-industrial Britain, upper-class women were free to pursue certain elitist pastimes such as hawking.
  • Similarly, lower class women were free to be physical, but in less sophisticated activities such as smock races.
  • The Victorian era brought new attitudes, especially for middle class women for whom physical activity was thought to be unsuitable, undignified and even dangerous.
  • 19th C women were constrained by lack of opportunity and provision.
  • Pre-industrial Britain was mainly a two class society.
  • Upper class- gentry or aristocracy.
  • Lower class- peasant
  • The upper class had opportunity, provision and esteem. (Money, time and social status)
  • Task- read the italicised quote on page 11. What are the differences in sports that the classes participated in? Why do you think they participated in different sports?
direct or indirect developmental links from popular recreation to today
Direct or indirect (developmental) links from popular recreation to today.
  • A direct link is something such as a pre-industrial festival that still occurs today e.g. Ashbourne Games
  • Indirect (developmental) link has come via a previous stage- we will look at this when we focus on rational recreation.
  • Task- copy table 4 on page 12 focusing on direct links from popular recreation to today.