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Supervision in Organizations Chapter 8 Motivating Your Employees. Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to:. Define motivation. Identify and define the five personality characteristics relevant to understanding the behavior of employees at work.

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Supervision in Organizations

Chapter 8

Motivating Your Employees

learning outcomes after reading this chapter i will be able to
Learning OutcomesAfter reading this chapter, I will be able to:
  • Define motivation.
  • Identify and define the five personality characteristics relevant to understanding the behavior of employees at work.
  • Identify the characteristics that stimulate the achievement drive in high achievers.
  • Identify the three relationships in expectancy theory that determine an individual’s level of effort.
  • List actions a supervisor can take to maximize employee motivation
motivation and individual needs
Motivation And Individual Needs
  • Motivation
    • The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need
  • Need
    • An internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive
understanding individual differences
Understanding Individual Differences
  • Common Error among Supervisors
    • Supervisors often assume that other people are like them (ambition, values, motivated by the same things, etc…)
  • To be a successful supervisor & motivator
    • Recognize individual differences
    • Set challenging goals
    • Match people to jobs
    • Individualize rewards
understanding individual differences cont
Understanding Individual Differences cont…
  • Can Personality Traits Predict Work-Related Behavior?
    • Locus of Control
      • Internal – belief that you control your own destiny
      • External – luck, fate, or powerful others control your own destiny (little personal influence on success)
    • Machiavellianism
      • Manipulative behavior based on the belief that the ends can justify the mean
        • High Machs – motivated in jobs that entail bargaining (labor negotiator) or rewards (sales commission)
understanding individual differences cont1
Understanding Individual Differences cont…
  • Can Personality Traits Predict Work-Related Behavior?
    • Self-esteem
      • The degree to which an individual likes or dislikes themselves
        • High SE: believe that they posses ability to succeed
        • Low SE: seek approval from others & are prone to conformance
    • Self-monitoring
      • The ability to adjust behavior to external situational factors
        • High SM: ability to adjust behavior to external factors
        • Low SM: display true feelings and beliefs
early theories of motivation
Early Theories Of Motivation
  • Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow)
    • There is a hierarchy of five human needs; as each need becomes satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
      • Physiological: food, drink, shelter, sex
        • (Wages)
      • Safety: physical safety
        • (Benefits/Pension)
      • Social: affiliation with others, affection, friendship
        • (Friendly Co-Workers)
      • Esteem or Ego: achievement, status, and attention
        • (Promotions, Recognition, and Rewards)
      • Self-actualization: personal growth and fulfillment
        • Meaningful work
early theories of motivation cont d
Early Theories Of Motivation (cont’d)
  • Theory X (McGregor)
    • The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform
  • Theory Y
    • The assumption that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction
theory x premises
Theory X Premises
  • A manager who views employees from a Theory X (negative) perspective believes:
    • Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it.
    • Because employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve desired goals.
    • Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible.
    • Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.
theory y premises
Theory Y Premises
  • A manager who views employees from a Theory Y (positive) perspective believes:
    • Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.
    • Men and women will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives.
    • The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility.
    • The ability to make good decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of supervisors.
early theories of motivation cont d1
Early Theories Of Motivation (cont’d)
  • Motivation-Hygiene theory (Herzberg)
    • Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction
      • Hygiene factors
        • Factors, such as working conditions and salary, that, when adequate, may eliminate job dissatisfaction but do not necessarily increase job satisfaction.
      • Motivators
        • Factors, such as recognition and growth, that can increase job satisfaction.
contemporary theories of motivation
Contemporary Theories Of Motivation
  • Need for Achievement (nAch):
    • the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.
    • High Achievers (10-20% of U.S. Population)
      • Want to do things better
      • Desire rapid and unambiguous feedback
      • Desire personal responsibility
      • Intrinsically motivated
      • Believe in a 50/50 chance for success
      • Avoid what they perceive to be very easy or very difficult tasks (intermediate degrees of risk)
      • Not good supervisors
contemporary theories of motivation cont d
Contemporary Theories Of Motivation (cont’d)
  • Equity theory (Adams)
    • Employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put into it (inputs) and then compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratios of relevant others.
      • Inputs
        • Effort
        • Experience
        • Education
        • Competence
      • Outcomes
        • Salary levels
        • Raises
        • Recognition
equity theory relationships
Equity Theory Relationships

Perceived Ratio Comparison


*Person A is the employee, and Person B is a relevant other or referent.

expectancy theory vroom
Expectancy Theory (Vroom)
  • Expectancy Theory (Vroom)
    • A theory of motivation that an individual tends to act in a certain way (effort), in the expectation that the act will be followed by given outcome (performance-reward), and according to the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
    • Effort-performance
      • The perceived probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance
    • Performance-reward
      • The belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome
    • Attractiveness
      • The importance placed on the potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job.
expectancy theory cont d
Expectancy Theory (cont’d)
  • Emphasizes self interest in the alignment of rewards with employee wants.
  • Addresses why employees view certain outcomes (rewards) as attractive or unattractive.
  • Emphasizes the connections among expected behaviors, rewards, and organizational goals.
  • Is concerned with individual perceptions and the provision of feedback.
establishing an motivating atmosphere
Establishing an Motivating Atmosphere
  • Recognize Individual Differences
  • Match People to Jobs
  • Set Challenging Goals
  • Encourage Participation
  • Individualize Rewards
  • Link Rewards to Performance
  • Check for Equity
  • Don’t Ignore Money!!!
designing motivating jobs
Designing Motivating Jobs
  • Skill variety
    • The degree to which the job requires a variety of activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talents
  • Task identity
    • The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
  • Task significance
    • The degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people
designing motivating jobs cont d
Designing Motivating Jobs (cont’d)
  • Autonomy
    • The degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out
  • Feedback
    • The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance
work life balance alternative work schedules
Work-Life Balance: Alternative Work Schedules
  • Flextime
    • A scheduling option that allows employees select what their work hours will be within some specified parameters.
  • Job sharing
    • A type part-time work that allows two or more workers to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job
  • Telecommuting
    • A system of working at home on a computer that is linked to the office
motivation compensation alternatives
Motivation & Compensation Alternatives
  • Pay-for-performance programs
    • Compensation plans such as piece-rate plans, profit sharing, and the like that pay employees on the basis of performance measures not directly related to time spent on the job.
  • Competency-based compensation
    • A program that pays and rewards employees on the basis of skills, knowledge, or behaviors they possess
  • Employee stock ownership plan
    • A program that allows employees to purchase company stock at a fixed price and profit when company performance increases its stock value.
flexibility the key to motivating a diverse workforce
Flexibility: The Key To Motivating A Diverse Workforce
  • Recognizing the different personal needs and goals of individuals
  • Providing a diversity of rewards to match the varied needs of employees
  • Being flexible in accommodating the cultural differences within a diverse workforce when attempting to motivate workers.