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Motivation: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Motivation:. What directs and energizes your behavior?. Lecture 12 3/8/04. The Pyramid of Human Motivation. Self Actualization. Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential. Happy, absorbed, capable of greatness.

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What directs and energizes your behavior?

Lecture 12


self actualization
Self Actualization

Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential

happy absorbed capable of greatness
Happy, absorbed, capable of greatness
  • “Think about the most wonderful experiences of your life; happiest moments, ecstatic moments, moments of rapture, perhaps from being in love, or from listening to music, or suddenly being hit by a book or a painting or some great creative moment.”
peak experiences
Peak Experiences
  • Open to new experiences, spontaneous, playful, loving, creative, self-accepting, energetic…

An activity totally absorbs one’s focus

Forget normal worries & self-consciousness

Lose track of time

Feel confident & clear-headed

Emerge with sense of satisfaction & growth

esteem needs power achievement
Esteem Needs = Power & Achievement
  • accomplish difficult tasks, outperform others, and excel
  • acquire prestige and influence over other people
energy attention stimulation information emotional support
Energy, attention, stimulation, information & emotional support
  • When?
    • Stress, fear, embarrassment???
  • HIGH: “These shocks will hurt…In research of this sort, if we’re to learn anything at all that will really help humanity, it’s necessary that our shocks be intense”
  • LOW: “I assure you that what you will feel will not in any way be painful. It will resemble a tickle or a tingle more than anything unpleasant”

“10 minute delay”

  • Do you want to wait: alone, w/ others, no preference?
do we always want to be with others
Do we always want to be with others?
  • Not just anyone will do
    • P’s preferred to be alone than w/ students not in study

Stress doesn’t always motivate affiliation…

  • Embarrassment: Sucking on large nipples and pacifiers…
    • P’s preferred to be alone than with others
  • Naturalistic study: waiting for open heart surgery
    • Prefer post-operative than pre-operative room-mate
we won they lost
“We won! They lost!”
  • Students wear more university-affiliated apparel after varsity football wins
  • Conducting a survey of student knowledge of campus issues…
    • Can you tell me the outcome of that game?
    • Win: 32%
    • Loss: 18%
one step further
One step further…

Human sexual feelings and behaviors are powerful motivational forces

evolutionary psychology an explanation
Evolutionary Psychology: an explanation

Gender differences in mate preference are a product of natural selection

  • Favored mating behaviors that promote the conception, birth and survival of offspring
    • Men & women attracted to different characteristics and have different strategies
ensuring reproductive success

Possibility to father unlimited # of children

Rely on external cues like attractiveness to serve as guide for youth, & good health


Careful selection of mate with resources for well-being

Value commitment, health, ambition, financial security

Ensuring reproductive success
the dating marketplace in 37 countries n 10 047
Men’s values

Physical attractiveness

“good looks”

Being older than spouse

Low hip to waist ratio

Women’s values

Socioeconomic status

“good financial prospects”

“ambition and industriousness”

Being younger than spouse

The dating marketplace: in 37 countries (N = 10,047)
big misconception
Big Misconception
  • Only thing that defines body = weight
    • SHAPE is not captured
  • Mind is designed to look for health based on LOCATION of fat, not just Fat vs. Skinny
  • 1991 Singh developed series of figures from .7 to 1.0
ideal body image
Ideal Body Image
  • Which image is ideal for your sex?
  • Which comes closest to your own body?