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School-wide Behavior Supports in High Schools:What Works!And What Does Not! Dr. Hank Bohanon Loyola University of Chicago Center for School Evaluation, Intervention, and Training email@example.com http://www.luc.edu/cseit
Welcome • Greetings and Key Elements • Lessons Learned • Principles, and Systems, Practices, Data • Remembering the Adults • Charge and benediction
Powerpoint • Participants will have a better idea of the what may work (and what certainly does not work) in high school schoolwide behavior support implementation
Outline • What seems to work • Lesson’s learned from the field (Ready, Get Set, Go) • Principles, Systems, Practices, Data • Supporting Adult Behavior
Thank you! • Maryland PBIS Leadership Team • Virginia Department of Education • George Mason University • Maryland PBIS • Sheppard Pratt Health System • Johns Hopkins University • Chicago Public Schools • IL-PBIS • University of Kansas • Loyola University and CSEIT
Thank you • Staff and Leadership of CPS Schools • Research Team from Loyola • Dr. Pamela Fenning – firstname.lastname@example.org • Contact about policy and group level supports • See article • Journal of School Violence (2004), Vol. 3, (1)
Gina Bartucci email@example.com Alissa Briggs firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Pamela Fenning, email@example.com Kira Hicks firstname.lastname@example.org Lisa Lewis email@example.com Lauren McArdle firstname.lastname@example.org Jennifer Mills email@example.com Dr. Diane Morrison firstname.lastname@example.org Steve Ramano (IL-PBIS) email@example.com Jennifer Rose firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Lynda Stone email@example.com Stacey Weber firstname.lastname@example.org Colleagues
Thank you! • “Systematic Analysis and Model Development for High School Positive Behavior Support” Institute for Education Science, U.S. Department of Education, Submitted with the University of Oregon. Awarded 2007. • “Character Education: Application of Positive Behavior Supports” to U.S. Department of Education, Safe and Drug Free Schools. Awarded 2007.
Who do we have in the room? • Years of PBS implementation • Roles
Brad Engel, Assistant Principal Kent Island High School Queen Anne’s County, Maryland Adam Sheinhorn, Administrator North County High School Anne Arundel County, Maryland Bruce Butler, Principal Teresa Fennessy Marla Fullerton Frances Walker, PBS Coach South Lakes High School Fairfax County, Virginia Aaron Engley, Administrator Carrie Jones, PBS Coach Garrett Hubbard West Potomac High School Fairfax County, Virginia Panel Discussion Presentations
What you will hear next… • Description of schools • Key components (e.g., buy-in) • Examples of teaching, acknowledging, and policies (redirection) • Implementation data • Outcome data
Ready (Lesson’s Learned) • Take time to build foundation • Identify priorities • Share priority perceptions and organized outcome data • Link approach with local need • Link to top three priorities (school improvement) • Address philosophy of staff • Behavior • Discipline
Question • What are at least three things you can do to supports students from diverse backgrounds in your schools?
Task Force, 2006 • Help African-American males…transition from high school to college • In areas of high need, provide…mental health services needed to support greater academic achievement. • Increase and improve in-school, supervised suspension programs focused on academic development and behavioral counseling. (Task Force on the Education of Maryland’s African-American Males, 2006)
Task Force, 2006 • Futures planning • Wraparound • Schoolwide behavior and academic support (Task Force on the Education of Maryland’s African-American Males, 2006)
What IDEA says about PBS • Consider if Impedes • School-wide • General education • Incidental benefit • Service not a place • School-improvement • FBA/BIP
Principles • Behavior • Reinforcement • Punishment • Setting events • Discipline • Shaping
Principles • Behavior = Purposive & Communitive • Reinforcement = Add or take away something, behavior goes up • Punishment = You do something behavior does not occur again • Setting events = before behavior • Discipline = to teach • Shaping = baby steps
Punishment • Punishment stops a behavior • Alone, it has some major side effects - Increases escape/avoidance - Encourages “sneaky” behaviors - Generates desire for revenge - Makes behavior harder to change - Does not teach - You can’t find a big enough hammer - It works both ways - It makes us filter (e.g., He’s always mean to me!)
Teams Data Group Supports Individuals • Data driven • Team based • Comprehensive • Representative • Top 3 goal • Use data • Have mission • Meet regularly • Identify • concerns • Prioritize • Simple questions • Useful presentation • Address skill • deficits • Function-based • Multiple students Administrative Supports Engaging Schools Acknowledgment Systems Instructing Behavior • Clear responses • for + and – behavior • Encourage, discourage • and monitor behavior • Prompt and reward • staff • Across settings • Examples/ • non-examples • Re-teaching • Pre-teaching • Prompting • Knows the team • Attends training • Anticipates needs • Plans meetings • Liaison between • team and staff • Ask questions • Identify concerns • Build on strengths • Pacing
Structure of Prevention
Key Features of Prevention • Pro-activity • Data-based decision-making; and • Problem-solving orientation (Horner, 2000; Lewis & Sugai, 1999; Sugai, et al., 2000; Weigle, 1997).
Key Prevention Strategies • Multiple approaches to changing behavior: Changing systems Altering environments Teaching skills Improving quality of life
1 PROPORTIONS WHO RESPOND TO A CONTINUM OF SUPPORTS Students who respond to intensive academic behavior support 1-7% Individual Support 5-15% Group Support Students who respond to less intensive academic behavior support 80-90% Students who would respond to effective core academic and behavior curriculum Schoolwide support OSEP-PBS National Standard
Blueprint for Prevention Universal Instruction Group Instruction Individual Supports
How do you Teach What is Expected in your Home/School? • We are always teaching! Implicitly Indirectly Explicitly Directly
Examples of Universal Supports Effective core curriculum Modifying academic curriculum (Universal Learning Design) Academic screening Improving classroom management Embedding social skills instruction Modified from Online Academy – Access 2002
Building Level Systems • Administrative Commitment • Staff Commitment/Priority • Team • Self-Assessment • Data system
Identify expectations of the setting Evaluate implementation and evaluation of core curriculum Develop team/plan/support Directly teach expectations Consistent consequences Acknowledgement Collect data Process, academics and behavior Communicate with staff On-going evaluation Schoolwide Supports
Key Elements • Systems • Administrative Commitments, Representative Teams, Audit of practices, Priority • Practices • Based on evidence • Data • Process and impact • What and with whom?
Systems/Data • System - SET Information • Overall Score approximately 80% • Teaching @ 70% • Acknowledgment @ 50% • Impact data • School has access to discipline and attendance data
Practice • To address tardies (high school) – names of students from class were put into a drawing. Four students’ names were drawn at random weekly, if the student did not have a tardy they could choose a prize.
Report from School • Teachers were not able to sustain, teachers did not remember to conduct drawings. • We can use department chairs to provide reminders and support to staff (System)
Teaching Expectations Examples • Staff orientation meetings • Assemblies • Lesson plans for homerooms • Posters • Booster weeks • Key Elements • Rationale • Negative examples • Positive examples • Practice CSEIT Research Team 2008
Teaching • Identify areas of need • Develop plans and post • Lesson • - Identify expectation • - Rationale • - Non-example/example • - Practice/Feedback (Set limits and pre-teach stop prompt) • - Evaluation • Booster Sessions as necessary
Acknowledgement • Frequent (Daily) • Intermediate (Weekly/Monthly) • Large (Quarterly/Bi-Annually) • Includes staff and students
Acknowledging Students and Staff Examples • Buzzy Bucks/School Store • Monthly raffles for students teachers, and support staff • Best Homeroom Challenge • Gold and Silver ID cards • Honors Dinner • Birthday Cards • School-Wide Celebrations • Key Elements • Variety of reinforcers • Specific/Immediate • Training • Rationale • Developmentally appropriate • Don’t forget the big people