Neurofeedback Training Michael Dahl CS 575
Introduction • Goal: Learning to self-regulate one’s own brain • It is technology’s answer to psychotherapy, cognitive rehabilitation, and poor cerebral functioning • Mental Health Professionals • Educators • Occupational Therapists • Rehabilitation Counselors • Doctors
Biofeedback • Attaching sensors to the body for purpose of acquiring biological signals such as: • Heart rate • Muscle tension • Body temperature • … • Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback • Brains electrical activity
Inside the Brain • Neurons
Detecting activity inside the Brain • When many neurons fire at the same time, they may produce electrical activity detectable to an electrode placed on the head. • Electroencephalograph (EEG) - Graphical representation of neuronal activities in the brain.
Early History • 1875: Richard Canton – First person to record electrical activity from the brain. He discovered fluctuation in the brain’s electrical activity follow mental activity • 1920’s: Hans Berger – First to measure EEG on human scalp. Discovered several types of brainwaves Berger’s EEG recording apparatus Berger’s electrode cap
More History • 1963: Joseph Kamiya – trained patient to recognize alpha state through verbal reinforcement • 1968: Barry Sterman – Trained cats to increase SMR
Modern Developments • 1970’s – 1980’s: QEEG • 1980’s – 1990’s: Use of computer graphics and sound for neurofeedback training
Brain regions • Each region of the brain is associated with specific fundamental operations Example locations: International 10-20 System of Electrode Placement
Equipment for neurofeedback • Desktop PC (preferably double monitor) • Brain amp • Electrodes and paste
Equipment for neurofeedback • Software • Program for data acquisition, processing and display (i.e. BioExplorer) - Video games, movie player, ….
Snapshot of data at site cz Normative ADHD OCD / Anxiety Disorders PTSD
QEEG • Developed in 1970’s / 1980’s • 19 sensors on scalp • Broad picture of the brain in action • Can compare results to normative database • Often used to access progress of neuorofeedback training
EEG Signatures EEG Signatures for ADD EEG Signatures for Anxiety Disorders
Two branches of treatment • Normalizing the EEG • Personal growth and mental flexibility (peek performance)
Video • Chris Kaman’s Story • NBA basketball player for the Clippers • http://www.youtube.com/neurocoretv#p/a/u/1/PWndvoCjrxY
Near Future • Virtual Reality • Enhance neurofeedback in a couple ways • The total immersion and totality of the feedback allows the patient to focus completely on his physiology without distraction • More engaging and motivating for the client
Some Predictions for the Future • At some point, every home will have one. We will all hook up to a machine with electrodes. It will be as common as physical exercise. • Someday people may even wear tiny computers to monitor their EEG and tell them when they need to make adjustments.
Conclusion • Field of neurofeedback is still in its infancy • Research in thin • Clinical outcome studies are overwhelming • Research needs to be funded to gain support of insurance companies, schools, and doctors