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NEUROFEEDBACK. Using Technology to Re-Shape the Mind. Also called…. EEG Biofeedback Brain training Neuro-therapy Neuro-training Attention training Peak performance training. BIOFEEDBACK. Using information about how the body is working to alter what’s going on.

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neurofeedback

NEUROFEEDBACK

Using Technology to

Re-Shape the Mind

also called

Also called…

EEG Biofeedback

Brain training

Neuro-therapy

Neuro-training

Attention training

Peak performance training

biofeedback
BIOFEEDBACK

Using information about how the body is working to alter what’s going on

Biofeedback was popular in the 70’s for managing anxiety.

The client got sound tones for rewards when his GSR (Galvanic Skin Response) met the pre-set levels.

we now know our brains are much more plastic than we used to think
We now know our brains are much more “plastic” than we used to think.

Our brains can

learn,

change,

improve,

heal…

slide8

THE BIG

IDEA:

When you have information what your brain waves are doing, your brain can use that information to change how it works.

a few brain facts
A few brain facts…

Most brain development occurs

during the 1st 2 years of life

slide10

The human brain weighs

about 12 ounces at birth,

about 35 ounces at 1 year…

by age 5 the brain is about its full size and weight about 3 pounds about 2 of adult body weight
By age 5, the brain is about its full size and weight – about 3 pounds (about 2% of adult body weight).
slide13

By age 20-25, we have 100 billion neurons…

but then we start to LOSE brain cells.

slide14

As many as 10,000 brain cells die every day after age 20.

Fortunately, those 100,000,000,000 neurons are a generous supply!

slide15

Every neuron

is connected to

other neurons –

we have an estimated 1,000,000,000,000,000 connections in our brain.

our synaptic self
Our Synaptic Self*
  • Communication between brain cells is a bio-chemical event across tiny spaces called synapses.

Our thoughts, feelings, actions, memories & imaginations are the result of what happens in our synapses.

Synaptic Self – How Our Brains Become Who We Are by Ernest LeDoux

slide17
“I think,

therefore I am…”

Rene Descartes

(1596-1650)

slide19

What makes us who we are?

LeDoux believes it is all in the synapses that the essence of our personalities is encoded – including the basis for mental health and self-awareness – and mental illness, addictions and other brain-related problems.

slide20
PERSONALITY is a complex interaction between nature (our “hard-wired” responses) and nurture (our unique personal experiences) – all encoded in our synapses.
slide23

We can detect this electrical signal using sensors – electrodes – placed on the scalp.

slide24
These electrodes pick up information about brain waves --

similar to the way stethoscopes pick up information about our hearts and lungs.

slide25
In both situations,

SENSORS

are gathering

data.

slide28

This electrical signal is then magnified by some kind of amplifier, which is then fed through a computer.

BrainMaster

Wireless Pendant

Pocket 1-W EEG

slide29

Computers can filter out the various brain wave frequencies & provide us with this information in a usable form.

slide30

The patterns of brain wave activity varies, depending on where on the brain we are looking, and what kinds of things we are doing. In different mental states, different types of brain waves dominate.

slide31

Normal Brain

  • Good balance of brain waves
  • Ability to shift easily from one brain state to another
slide32
Neurofeedback works by helping to restore a better balance of waves in various parts of the brain.
slide33

Dysfunctional Brain

  • May have
  • too much of some
  • frequencies over others –
  • or in the wrong place
slide34

Dysfunctional Brain

  • May have
  • too much of some
  • frequencies over others
  • unstable frequencies
slide35

Dysfunctional Brain

  • May have
  • too much of some
  • frequencies over others
  • unstable frequencies
  • an impaired ability to
  • shift from one
  • mental state to another.
attention deficit disorder
Attention Deficit Disorder

The brain produces fast beta waves when the person is actively mentally involved in a language-based task …

slide38

For under-powered brains a fast-wave task like school work ends up causing the brain to start into beta—then collapse into slow drowsy waves.

Stimulant meds can stimulate the brain-– until the meds wear off.

slide39

NF works by re-training the brain to produce the beta waves on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

brain wave frequencies
BRAIN WAVE FREQUENCIES

Each brain wave frequency can be

measured in terms of:

  • Microvolts (µV) = Amplitude/Height of the wave
  • Hertz (Hz) = Frequency/Speed of the wave per second
frequency
FREQUENCY
  • The speed of electrical undulations, measured in cycles per second, or hertz (hz).
  • The frequency defines the brainwave bandwith:
    • Delta, Theta, Alpha = Slow
    • SMR, Beta, High Beta, Gamma = Fast
amplitude
AMPLITUDE
  • The powerof the electrical impulse, measured in microvolts. (µV)
  • Like volume is to sound
  • Slower waves have higher amplitudes.
  • It takes the brain a lot of energy to produce the faster waves, so amplitudes tend to be lower.
frequency bandwiths
FREQUENCY BANDWITHS
  • Single frequencies organized into discreet groups
  • Each bandwidth is associated with specific characteristics
  • The amplitude and microvolt readings reflect all of the activity within the bandwidth
  • NF training is aimed at changing the amplitude of a selected frequency bandwidth
cortical and subcortical processes
Cortical and Subcortical Processes

Regulation of basic life functions

Has a role in sexuality, memory, and processing emotional information

Used for thinking, talking, hearing, seeing and creating

delta
DELTA
  • 0.5-3 Hz (cycles or waves per second)
  • Sleep State
  • Regenerative State
  • Complex problem solving
  • Consciousness completely internalized
  • Transcendental states
  • Dominant wave form in infants up to 6 months old
      • 40% of the amplitude in infants
      • <5% of the amplitude in a “normal” adult
high amplitudes of delta
High Amplitudes of Delta
  • Learning Disabilities
    • “Sleepy Brains”
  • Brain Injuries
  • Eye Blinks and Eye Movement Artifact
theta
THETA
  • 4-7 Hz (cycles or waves per second)
  • Trance State
  • Intuitive, Creative
  • Internal Focus
  • Thoughts in Theta are visual/emotional
high amplitudes of theta
High Amplitudes of Theta
  • Learning Disabilities
    • Foggy Brains
    • Filtering Problems (ADHD)
    • Processing Problems (ADD)
  • Slow Reaction Time
  • Lack of Oxygen and Blood Flow
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
alpha
ALPHA
  • 8-12 Hz
  • Alertness
  • Peacefulness
  • Readiness
  • Meditation
  • Alpha Peak Frequency

>10 µV

Suggests Superior Intelligence

high amplitude alpha
High Amplitude Alpha
  • High Anterior (Frontal) Alpha
    • Daydreamers
    • ADD/ADHD
    • Depression
    • Traumatic Brain Injuries
    • Marijuana Use
  • High Posterior (Rear) Alpha
    • Anxiety
    • Insomnia
sensorimotor rhythm smr
SENSORIMOTOR RHYTHM(SMR)
  • 12-15 Hz
  • Relaxed yet focused
  • Stillness: Calm Mental State
  • Reflecting-before-acting
  • Sleep Spindles (12-14 Hz)
slide57
BETA
  • 15-22 Hz
  • Thinking
  • Focused
  • Sustained Attention
  • Problem-Solving
  • Externally Oriented
high amplitude beta 15 22 hz
High Amplitude Beta15-22 Hz
  • Left Hypo-activation = Depression
  • Right Hyper-activation = Anxiety
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • Sleep Disorders
  • Bruxism
high beta
High Beta
  • 23-35 Hz
  • Hypervigilance
  • Very fast cognitive processing
high amplitude high beta
High Amplitude High Beta
  • Epileptic Auras
  • Cortical Irritability
  • Hyper-vigilance
  • Overthinking
  • Ruminations
  • Obsessive Compulsive D/O
gamma
GAMMA
  • 35-42 Hz
  • “The Binding Rhythm”
    • Important to learning by bringing together different aspects of an object into a single precept.
  • Associated with transcendent experiences
  • Found throughout the scalp rather than one discreet location
slide63

What’s

Neurofeedback

good for??

slide65

HOW CAN NEUROEEDBACK

BE GOOD FOR

SO MANY

DIFFERENT CONDITIONS??

slide67

NF leads to improved

brain self-regulation.

slide68

UNDER-AROUSAL

is the problem with disorders like depression and ADHD.

slide69

OVER-AROUSAL

is the problem with anxiety disorders (includes panic attacks, PTSD, agoraphobia, etc.)

slide70

INSTABILITY

is the problem with bipolar disorder, seizure disorders, migraines.

slide73

Usually the effects are gradual,

although they can sometimes be immediate, such as in relieving a migraine headache.

slide74

For many conditions,

40 sessions

will provide nearly permanent relief.

slide75

For really entrenched problems – e.g., Asperger’s & other autism spectrum disorders – 100 -200 sessions may be needed, and results may not be as complete.

slide76

NF can change the face of mental health treatment – and offer resolution of symptoms rather than the temporary relief of medications.

neuroeedback positively affects

NEUROEEDBACK POSITIVELY AFFECTS:

ADD/ADHD

ADDICTIONS

ANXIETY

ATTACHMENT DISORDER

AUTISM

and helps those with
AND HELPS THOSE WITH:
  • CLOSED HEAD INJURIES
  • CONDUCT DISORDERS
  • CHRONIC PAIN
  • DEPRESSION
  • EPILEPSY
slide80

PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM:

  • FIBROMYALGIA
  • LEARNING DISABILITIES
  • MIGRAINES
  • OCD
  • POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS
slide81

& THOSE DEALING WITH:

  • SLEEP DISORDERS
  • STROKE
  • TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY