American Power Tips the Balance Eddie Rickenbacker-Famous fighter pilot of World War I.
America Mobilizes • Before WWI – 200,000 men were in military service when war was declared. Needed to make an Army. • Raising an Army • Selective Service Act – Law enacted in 1917 that required men to register for military service • 24 million men registered, 3 million were called up, 2 million reached Europe • Eight month training period took place partly in the United states and partly in Europe.
America Mobilizes • Raising an Army • 400,000 African American soldiers served • Served in segregated units and were excluded from the Navy and Marines • Most were assigned to noncombat duties • Women were not allowed to enlist • What else does an Army need?
America Mobilizes • Mass Production • How to transport men, food and equipment over thousands of miles of ocean • First – many shipyard workers were exempt from the draft • Second – U.S. Chamber of Commerce joined in a public relations campaign to emphasize the importance of shipyard work. • Third – shipyards used fabrications techniques instead of building and entire ship in the yard. (like and assembly line) • Fourth – Government took over commercial and private ships and converted them for transatlantic war use
America Turns the Tide • German U-Boats still pose a problem • Convoy System – The protection of merchant ships from U-Boat attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships • U.S. Navy helped lay a 230 mile barrier of mines across the North Sea from Scotland to Norway. • Significantly decreased the U-Boat threat – Germans had a tough time replacing their losses
America Turns the Tide • After two and half years of fighting the Allied forces were exhausted and demoralized. • Two main contributions by American Troops were freshness and enthusiasm
Fighting “Over There” • American Expeditionary Force led by General John J. Pershing. • New Weapons • Tanks • More efficient Machine Guns • Airplanes • Flame Thrower • Poison Gas • Anti-Aircraft guns
Fighting “Over There” • War Introduces New Hazards • New weapons and tactics of WWI led to horrific injuries and hazards. Fighting was surrounded by filth, lice, rats, and polluted water that caused dysentery. • Trench Foot • Poison Gas • Minimal Medical Care
American Troops go on the Offensive • May 1917 Germans are 50 Miles from Paris. Americans arrived just in time to help stop the German advance. • American War Hero – Alvin York – Page 592 • Conscientious objector – person who refuses, on moral grounds, to participate in warfare
American Troops go on the Offensive • The collapse of Germany • November 3, 1918 Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Allies. German munity started. No major battle ended the war but the fact that German soldiers were exhausted. • Armistice – End of the war – Peace Eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month of 1918 • Final Toll • 22 million deaths – more than half of them civilians • 20 million wounded • 10 million become refugees • 338 billion dollar price tag (roughly) • United States • 48,000 lost in battle • 62,000 to disease • 200,000 wounded