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Arthropoda. Modern crustacea. Myriapoda. Hexapoda. Chelicerata. Cenozoic (65-present). Trilobita. Mesozoic (251-65 mya). Paleozoic (542-251 mya). Precambrian (>542 mya). Crustaceamorph stem line. Rupert et al. fig 21-23. Collembola. Thysanura. Ephemeroptera. Odonata. Neoptera.

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slide1

Arthropoda

Modern crustacea

Myriapoda

Hexapoda

Chelicerata

Cenozoic (65-present)

Trilobita

Mesozoic (251-65 mya)

Paleozoic (542-251 mya)

Precambrian (>542 mya)

Crustaceamorph stem line

rupert et al fig 21 23
Rupert et al. fig 21-23

Collembola

Thysanura

Ephemeroptera

Odonata

Neoptera

“Apterygota”

Pterygota

Entognatha

Insecta

Hexapoda

slide3

Sternorrhyncha

Mantodea

Grylloblattaria

Heteroptera

Auchenorrhyncha

Phasmida

Anoplura

Isoptera

Holometabola

Mallophaga

Blattaria

Zoraptera

Psocoptera

Orthoptera

Thysanoptera

Dermaptera

Hemipteroids

Plecoptera

Neoptera

zoraptera
Zoraptera
  • Tropical
  • Live in rotting wood
  • Eat fungal hyphae, tiny arthropods
  • Poorly studied
isoptera termites
Isoptera - termites

Caste system within termite colonies

Worker

Soldier

Queen

Workers tend the colony, gather food

Soldiers cannot feed themselves, they have a nozzle-shaped snout for exuding noxious chemicals; defend colony from ant attack.

Queens add a set of ovaries with each molt → very high fecundity (1000’s/day); >1 Queen/colony; kings resemble large worker and mate repeatedly with queens

termites
Termites
  • Several kinds of termites based on diet
    • Subterranean* (live up to 20 ft underground)
    • Soil-feeding
    • Drywood*
    • Dampwood
    • Grass-feeding

* Types that infest and eat human buildings

termites1
Termites
  • All termites eat cellulose
    • Cellulose has high energy, but difficult to digest
    • Gut bacteria have cellulase
    • Gut protozoa have symbiotic bacteria in their guts
    • Some “higher” termites (subterranean) can produce cellulase, but they still also have a rich gut flora to aid in cellulose digestion
mantodea the mantids
Mantodea – the mantids
  • Raptorial first legs (“praying”) (also preying!)
  • Mobile neck joint
  • 3 extra eye on top of head
  • Sexual cannibalism: females eats male during copulation to get food and enhance sexual performance (tonus and locomotion of abdominal activity)
blattaria the cockroaches
Blattaria – the cockroaches
  • Aka blattodea
  • Have mobile neck joint
  • A few feed on wood and have endosymbiotic flagellates (like isopterans)
  • Fast runners!
slide13

Sternorrhyncha

Mantodea

Grylloblattaria

Heteroptera

Auchenorrhyncha

Phasmida

Anoplura

Isoptera

Holometabola

Mallophaga

Blattaria

Zoraptera

Psocoptera

Orthoptera

Thysanoptera

Dermaptera

Hemipteroids

Plecoptera

Neoptera

hemipteroids
Hemipteroids
  • Have piercing,

sucking mouthparts

hemipteroids1
Hemipteroids
  • In days of old…
    • O Hemiptera, O Homoptera
  • Current thinking:
  • O Heteroptera = true bugs
  • O Sternorryncha = aphids, scale insects
  • O Auchenorryncha = leaf hoppers, tree hoppers, plant hoppers, cicadas, spittlebugs
  • Many hemipteroids are important crop pests
sternorryncha
Sternorryncha

Both aphids and scale insects are important crop pests

Both form mutualistic interactions with ants (produce honeydew in exchange for protection)

psocoptera bark lice book lice
Psocoptera: bark lice, book lice
  • Live in humid crevices and feed on fungi (under bark, old musty books)
other lice
Other lice
  • O Anoplura – sucking lice of mammals
    • Often host-specific e.g. human crab louse, human head louse
other lice1
Other lice
  • O Mallophaga – chewing lice
    • All non-anopluran lice (polyphyletic)
    • Mostly found on birds
thysanoptera thrips
Thysanoptera -thrips
  • Suctorial mouthparts
  • Common in flowers (serve as pollinators)
  • Vectors of disease on some crops
  • Fringed wings
slide23

Sternorrhyncha

Mantodea

Grylloblattaria

Heteroptera

Auchenorrhyncha

Phasmida

Anoplura

Isoptera

Holometabola

Mallophaga

Blattaria

Zoraptera

Psocoptera

Orthoptera

Thysanoptera

Dermaptera

Hemipteroids

Plecoptera

Neoptera

holometabula
Holometabula
  • Hemimetabolous development
  • e.g. Odonata, Orthoptera, Blattodea
  • Mantodea, Hemipteroids
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Wing pads present in pre-adult
  • Larvae often resemble small adults
  • Holometabolous development
  • e.g. coleoptera, lepidoptera, diptera, hymenoptera
  • Complete metamorphosis
  • Inactive pupal stage
  • Larvae do not
    • resemble parents
    • eat the same things as parents
    • live in the same habitat as parents
slide25

Trichoptera

Lepidoptera

Hymenoptera

Diptera

Siphonaptera

Coleoptera

Neuroptera

Megaloptera

Holometabola

slide28
O. Coleoptera – the beetles
    • 360,000 species (and counting)
    • Forewings are sheathed (elytra)
    • Found everywhere, do everything
    • Some are major agricultural pests
slide29
O. Neuroptera – ant lions, lace wings
    • Wings are finely veined
    • Larvae predaceous
    • Pupae mobile but do not eat
slide30
O. Megaloptera
  • Closely related to neuropterans
  • Dobsonflies, alderflies
  • Larvae aquatic

Dobsonfly

Alderfly

slide31
O. Hymenoptera
  • Ants, bees, wasps, hornets
  • Constriction at waist (reduced metathorax)
  • Form polymorphic social communities - due to haplodiploidy
  • Combined biomass of all the social insects = 80% of the Earth’s total biomass
slide34

O. Lepidoptera = scale-wing

O. Trichoptera = bristle-wing

slide35
O. Siphonaptera – the fleas
  • Wingless ectoparasites of mammals and birds
  • Co-evolved parasite-host relationships, although many can switch hosts
  • Vectors of disease (plague)
slide36
O. Diptera – the flies
  • 151,000 species
  • 2 wings for flight, hind wings = halteres
  • Vectors of disease
    • Mosquitoes prevented Genghis Khan from conquering Russia, killed Alexander the Great, and played a huge influence in both world wars.